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Social Justice Seminar

by Catherine Hois and

Alexa Tavares

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Social Justice Seminar

Social Justice. Discussion Question What is Social Justice? Social justice is justice exercised within a society, particularly as it is applied to and among the various social classes of a society.
A socially-just society is defined by its advocates and practitioners as being based on the principles of equality and solidarity; it also maintains that the socially-just society both understands and values human rights, as well as recognizing the dignity of every human being. Before we begin, now that you know what a social justice movement is, can you give an example of one that occured at any point in the last 50 years? Black rights movement More about Martin Luther King Jr. Was born on (January 15, 1929-April 4, 1968) and grew up in Atlanta, Georgia.
King traveled over six million miles and spoke over 2500 times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles
Martin Luther King Jr., used Gandhi's concept of non-violent protest as a model for their own struggles.
In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail", a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, "l Have a Dream". Mahatma Gandhi Rosa Parks Rosa Parks was born on February 4, 1913, and passed away October 24, 2005.
She is well known for taking a stand against segregation laws for riding the public bus. She was 42 years old when it happened and did not get up because she knew that by metaphorically taking a stand against a white man, she would be fighting a horrible segregation law. Her violation was going against the "Jim Crow laws" and once she went to court she fought against the claims.
Her act was considered a civil rights movement due to the fact that she was leading a cause. President Barack Obama This Photo was taken on the 57th anniversary of Rosa Parks' refusal to give up her seat to a white man when she sat at the front of the bus. Just like Martin Luther King Jr. it was a peaceful protest.
This photo is especially significant because it was only 57 years ago that a person who was not white was told they weren't allowed to sit somewhere because of the colour of their skin, and now the President of the United States sits in her spot as a reminder of how far the country has come since then. He conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure. October 2, 1869 - January 30, 1948
It was there that he created his concept of satyagraha, a non-violent way of protesting against injustices. While in India, Gandhi's obvious virtue, simplistic lifestyle, and minimal dress endeared him to the people. He spent his remaining years working diligently to both remove British rule from India as well as to better the lives of India's poorest classes.

"I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent." "Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony." More About Rosa Parks... "People always say that I didn't give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn't true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired than I usually was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although some people have an image of me as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in. I knew someone had to take the first step and I made up my mind not to move. Our mistreatment was just not right, and I was tired of it." A few days after her arrest, Rosa Parks challenged her arrest with the help of a little known pastor who was new to town. Martin Luther King Junior, who was 26 years old at the time, stood with her. Along with thousands of other Montgomery Alabama commuters, and they began a boycott. The boycott ended 385 days after Rosa gave up her seat on the bus. Black men, women and children re-boarded the buses of Montgomery Alabama’s newly de-segregated buses and sat in whatever seats were open. Read and Discuss If anyone has their textbook can you turn to page 202 and read the definitions of both Social Justice and Justice? Aboriginal Rights Movement A part of us, as a multicultural society in Canada has forgotten that we in fact were not the first inhabitants of our great country. Aboriginals had their land and their rights taken away from them, and in it's place were new laws stating that our "multicultural country" was in fact trying to suppress the years of neglect, abuse and mistreatment of the original Canadian citizens.
The first Aboriginal-European treaty was in 1492, and at this time it was just done by word of mouth and passed on from generation to generation until it was written down in 1890 for the first time and it was called "The Great Law of Peace of the People of the Longhouse". What are Jim Crow laws? Jim Crow laws were laws enforced typically by the Southern American law makers, they were a set of segregation laws that were enforced to separate black and white people. They operated primarily, but not exclusively in southern and border states, between 1877 - the early 1960s.

There were also many laws against white & black people conversing. Martin Luther King Jr. Indian Residential Schools in Canada the painful legacy First 2:00 mins, then 10:10 - 11:00 1951 - 1981: Aboriginal Rights Movement Indian Act Revisions, 1951
The Right To Vote, 1960
White and Red Papers, 1969 - 1970
Drybones Case, 1970
Calder Case, 1973
Berger Commission, 1974 - 1977
James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement, 1975
Gender Equality and Social Justice What is Feminism? Feminism is the belief that society treats men and woman differently, and that women usually are unable to participate as often as men in society because men are socialized into being the dominant sex. Feminists want to change this situation and give society a new point of view. They want to wipe out the old way of thinking… After the war, women were expected to support men. The media was a large influence that promoted women to do house work, and find joy through staying at home and raising the children while the men went to work. Many women in the 1950s and 60s did not expect anything more because they grew up in a society that taught, and gave them the idea that happiness could only be found in being a good house wife to support your husband and family.

Women in the Work Force In the 1950’s, about one third of women were in the labor force, but they did not get jobs very easily because they were considered “the weaker sex” which made the chance of becoming a manager next to impossible. (Bureau of Labor Statistics) Key Theorist Margaret Mead made a large impact on feminism when she proved that men and women are in fact equal through her cultural studies. Mead traveled, and studied different societies where men would usually be dominant to women, until she discovered a few tribes that had different gender roles than the norms of the other societies. Margret stated that neither man nor woman is born dominant to the other, and that the dominance is learned through socialization. Symbolic Interactionism Another theory that relates to the feminist theory is symbolic interactionism Suggests that humans learn through interaction within their society, and focuses on how society helps form an individual’s identity. This theory relates to feminism because the image of a “house wife” was pressured onto young women around the 1950s through people of society and the media. There are other theories that state that women are naturally more nurturing than men, and it is in their nature to take care of the children, while it is in a man’s nature to go out and provide for the family. Surveys demonstrate that the average person thinks that women are naturally more nurturing, although there hasn’t been any scientific evidence. Agree/Disagree Women are naturally more nurturing than men. Please discuss this with the people around you. Women’s Progress… Women have been fighting and demanding justice and equality. The following is a timeline that shows how far women have come in equality. Can anyone think of an example of a situation where gender discrimination could take place in a society of today, or any other time in history? Women's Fight to Social Justice There was a book published called The Feminine Mystique. This book was about inequality of women, and was a bestseller that majorly influenced woman’s rights movements. There was also the Equal Pay Act that was passed, which made it illegal for an employer to pay a woman less than they would pay a man. 1963 1972 The National Organization for Woman was founded, which was the largest woman’s rights group in the U.S. Their main goal being to end sexual inequality, used many public demonstrations Education Amendments ban discrimination against gender in schools, stated that no students should be excluded, or denied any benefits based on their sex 1966 It is now illegal for husbands to rape their wives 1976 Law passed that made it illegal to discriminate against pregnant women; they cannot lose their job because they are pregnant nor can they be forced to go on fraternity leave if they say they wish to stay and work. 1978 Supreme Court states that sexual harassment is a form of illegal job discrimination 1986 The Violence Against Women Act makes penalties for sex offenders more serious, and provides services for rape victims, as well as special police officer training 1994 Obama signed an Act that allows victims of pay discrimination to complain to the government against their employer. This act was passed because of a woman who claimed she was paid 15 – 40% less than her male coworkers, which was found to be accurate. 2009 The media influenced gender equality in a not so positive way around the 1950s and 60s, but in present day the media has been a great influence in supporting gender equality, for example… Discrimination Against Homosexuals Around the 60s and 70s, people that organized themselves with others that were similarly deviant sexually were noticed by public administrators, and were labeled “homosexuals”
The homosexuals were targeted by society; everyone thought that homosexuality was a mental illness, and a threat to society. Men in the 60s were given criminal charges for being homosexual because they were considered sex offenders, and were sometimes sent to prison. A Timeline on Homosexuality movements Quebec was the first province to include “sexual orientation” in its legislation for human rights 1977 1999 Government lifted its ban on homosexuals in the military which allowed homosexuals to live with their partners on military bases Supreme Court of Canada ruled that homosexual couples should have the same rights and benefits as common law couples with regard to income taxes, and pensions 1992 Government extended hate propaganda to homosexuals which made it an offence to spread hatred against people based on their sexual orientation. 2004 The Civil Marriage Act was introduced which gave same sex couples the right to marry 2005 What is a Social Movement? A group of people with a common ideology who try together to achieve certain general goals. Social justice is also a concept that is used to describe the movement towards a socially-just world. Racial Segregation When white Democrats regained power, they passed laws that made voter registration more inaccessible to blacks. Black voters were forced off the voting rolls. The number of African American voters dropped dramatically, and they no longer were able to elect representatives. From 1890 to 1908, Southern states of the former Confederacy created constitutions with provisions that disfranchised tens of thousands of African Americans. Racial segregation. By law, public facilities and government services such as education were divided into separate "white" and "colored" domains. Characteristically, those for colored were underfunded and of inferior quality. Disfranchisement. Timeline of Black History Movements in North America Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956
Desegregating Little Rock, 1957
Sit-ins, 1958–1960
Voter registration organizing
Integration of Mississippi universities, 1956–65
Albany Movement, 1961–62
Birmingham Campaign, 1963–64
March on Washington, 1963
St. Augustine, Florida, 1963–64
Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, 1964
King Awarded Nobel Peace Prize On December 10, 1964
Boycott of New Orleans by American Football League players, January 1965 Nelson Mandela Preview for new movie "42" Quotes By Rosa Parks Quote from Rosa Sigmund Freud His theories on homosexuality were as follows;
- Homosexuality arises when the infant boy is attracted to his mother, but discovers that his mother is ‘castrated’. The boy gets castration anxiety and turns from his mother to a ‘woman with a penis’
- Child is over attracted to his mother that he identifies with her, and seeks love objects like himself so he can love them like his mother loved him
- Negative Oedipus complex occurs (child wants to sexually poses the parent of the opposite sex), boy seeks his father’s love by taking on a feminine identification
- Homosexuality could occur from reaction and jealousy of his father and brothers, and is converted to love of men
Believed that all humans are attracted to both sexes at some level
He was contacted by a worried mother in 1935 seeking treatment for her son’s homosexuality, and this was his response
Citations April 9th 1935


Dear Mrs [Erased],

I gather from your letter that your son is a homosexual. I am most impressed by the fact that you do not mention this term yourself in your information about him. May I question you why you avoid it? Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation; it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function, produced by a certain arrest of sexual development. Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them. (Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc). It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime – and a cruelty, too. If you do not believe me, read the books of Havelock Ellis.

By asking me if I can help, you mean, I suppose, if I can abolish homosexuality and make normal heterosexuality take its place. The answer is, in a general way we cannot promise to achieve it. In a certain number of cases we succeed in developing the blighted germs of heterosexual tendencies, which are present in every homosexual in the majority of cases it is no more possible. It is a question of the quality and the age of the individual. The result of treatment cannot be predicted.

What analysis can do for your son runs on a different line. If he is unhappy, neurotic, torn by conflicts, inhibited in his social life, analysis may bring him harmony, peace of mind, full efficiency, whether he remains a homosexual or gets changed. If you make up your mind he should have analysis with me — I don't expect you will — he has to come over to Vienna. I have no intention of leaving here. However, don't neglect to give me your answer.

Sincerely yours with best wishes,

Some statistics A major example of media would be television. There were many sexist commercials in the 1950s that would seem ridiculous today, but were taken very seriously then… - Statistics Canada started recording the number of same sex couples in 2001, and the 2011 count for same sex couples almost doubled the original count with 64,575 in total
- Five years after the count in 2005 when same sex marriage was legalized, there was a large jump from 7,500 in 2006 to 21,000 in 2011
- Common – law same sex relationships rose 15% from 2006 to 2011 "What Is Feminism? Feminism 101." Redletterpress.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2013. <http://www.redletterpress.org/feminism101.html>.
Gramstad, Thomas. "What Is Feminism?" Http://folk.uio.no. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2013. <http://folk.uio.no/thomas/po/whatisfeminism.html>.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Editor's Desk, Changes in women’s labor force participation in the 20th century on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2000/feb/wk3/art03.htm (visited March 31, 2013).
Imbornoni, Ann-Marie. "Women's Rights Movement in the U.S." Infoplease. Infoplease, 2007. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline3.html>.
"A Brief History of Homosexuality in America." Http://www.gvsu.edu. N.p., 28 Nov. 2011. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://www.gvsu.edu/allies/a-brief-history-of-homosexuality-in-america-30.htm>.
Makarenko, Jay. "Same-Sex Marriage in Canada | Mapleleafweb.com." Www.mapleleafweb.com. N.p., 1 Jan. 2007. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://www.mapleleafweb.com/features/same-sex-marriage-canada>.
"Freud on Homosexuality – Andrew Kirby." Psychotherapypapers.wordpress.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://psychotherapypapers.wordpress.com/2008/11/12/kirby1/>.
Campion-Smith, Bruce. "2011 Census: Canada Sees a Jump in Same-sex Marriages." Thestar.com. N.p., 19 Sept. 2012. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2012/09/19/2011_census_canada_sees_a_jump_in_samesex_marriages.html>.
"Gandhi - Biography of Mahatma Gandhi." About.com 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/a/gandhi.htm>.-
nelson mandela bio
""42" Movie Preview." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/>. - movie “42” preview clip"
African-American Civil Rights Movement." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 31 Mar. 2013. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement>.- info"Front | Canadiana." Front | Canadiana. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.canadiana.ca/>."Ferris State University: Michigan College Campuses in Big Rapids MI, Grand Rapids MI, Off Campus Locations Across Michigan." Ferris State University: Michigan College Campuses in Big Rapids MI, Grand Rapids MI, Off Campus Locations Across Michigan. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://www.ferris.edu/>.jimcrowlaaws"Front | Canadiana." Front | Canadiana. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.canadiana.ca/>."The Legacy of Rosa Parks." Denver Public Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.
<http://denverlibrary.org/content/legacy-rosa-parks%20>."Explore and Learn." Nobelprize.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.
<http://www.nobelprize.org/>."Gandhi - Biography of Mahatma Gandhi." About.com 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/a/gandhi.htm>.
Discussion Based on what we have learned about how far social equality has come, do you think society will ever be fully socially equal?
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