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Emily Popp

on 13 October 2014

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Transcript of Naegleria

Kate Mozzochi & Emily Popp
What led us to research Naegleria?
Naegleria is a parasite that affects the brain. The main reason that we picked Naegleria was because the images for this parasite were minimally graphic.
Who is Affected by This Parasite?
Where and How Naegleria Originated
The Discovery of Naegleria
The Affects Of Naegleria
How is Naegleria Classified?
Naegleria's Niche
Case History

Life Cycle
Current Research and Treatments
Will Naegleria Ever be Eradicated?
Is Naegleria Successful?
What Characteristics Make Naegleria Unique?
Something Interesting
Usually Naegleria eats bacteria; however, once in the human body, the parasite uses the brain as a food source.
Change in smell or taste
Stiff neck
Nausea/ Vomiting
Altered mental status
Naegleria Causes...
Kali Hardig, age 12, contracted the Naegleria parasite in the form of a rare meningitis while swimming at a water park in Arkansas.

Kali began vomiting violently and her mother rushed her to the emergency room. Her mother's early action is mostly likely the reason she lived.

Kali was given a multitudes of drugs including an experimental drug that was used to treat breast cancer. They also used a method of cooling used for cases of traumatic brain injury.

Naelgeria normally affects children and young adults; however, the amoeba does not specifically affect a certain group of people
Young boys are most at risk
If someone ingests warm,contaminated, freshwater through their nose or swims in a poorly maintained swimming pool they are at risk of being affected by Naelgeria
Naeleria Fowleri can only infect Humans
There are three stages in the life cycle of Naegleria

The Naegleria changes stages of life as the conditions of the environment change

Ameboid Trophozite Stage
The amoeba feeds on bacteria and multiplies through binary fission (pinching in half) without breaking the membrane of the nucleus
Flagellate Stage
(Ameboflagellate state)
There are 8 known types of Naegleria that can be found in bodies of freshwater (lakes, rivers and ponds) or soil in...
Europe (Australia, New Zealand, and Japan)
Middle Asia (Thiland, India and China)
The USA.
A temporary state where the Naegleria does not feed or divide
If creature come into contact with poor nutrient water, the Naegleria enters the flagellate stage
The Naegleria changes shape and may move forward rapidly or spin in place to escape bad nutrient water
Cystic Stage

The most resistant form of the parasite that protects the parasite from dryness or food shortages. When conditions around the amoeba improve, the parasite escapes through pores of the cyst.
Amoeba migrates through olfactory nerves (nose) to cause infection in the brain
Naegleria was first discovered in Australia but has supposedly evolved in the United States
Found in 1965 by Dr. Fowler and Dr. Cutler
This discovery was important to scientific and medical research because Naegleria proved how a protozoa can live both in a human host and in nature
Naegleria causes the disease Primary Amebic Meningoencenphalitis (PAM) which was discovered by Dr. Butt in 1966
Kingdon= Protists (specifically protozoa)
Phylum= Sarcomastigophora (specifically sarcodina)
Species= Fowleri
Class= Acarpomyxea
Family= Vahlkampfiidae
Genus= Naegleria
Order= Schizopyrenida

Naegleria commonly kills individuals quickly; however, doctors normally use amphotericin B, which is highly toxic and may cause organ damage or drug related death, to treat patients infected with naelgeria.
Amphotericin B is very ineffective because of the nature of the protazoa; it is very rare that a human will survive after having Naegleria infect their brain
Naegleria's natural niche is bodies of warm, freshwater such as lakes, rivers or hot springs
This parasite can also make it's home in under chlorinated pools, soil deposits, heated tap water or in warm water discharge from industrial plants
The ideal temperature is above 27 degrees Celsius
They grow at temperatures between 37-46 degrees Celsius (86-115 F)

Is Naegleria good and what it does?

- Naegleria is a very rare occurrence in humans; however, most cases of Naegleria in humans result in primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal; therefore, Naegleria is successful at eating the brains of humans.

- There is no effective treatment for Naegleria; therefore, the parasite continues to reproduce and destroy the brain and nervous system.

- In nature, Naegleria is common in lakes in the South and has become more prevalent in lakes of the North which means the parasite is successful at reproducing and expanding.
The immune system in the human body naturally uses mucus to remove toxins and harmful bacterias from the body; however, Naelgeria releases an enzyme once inside the human body that digests the mucus which makes the infection even harder to treat
Naegleria causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is nearly always fatal
Most Dangerous Effect

Other drugs such as miltefosine and chlorpromazine are currently being tested to treat Naegleria
Chlorpromazine has been more successful in treating the parasite
The scary part: A child died a few years earlier from meningitis caused by the Naegleria parasite after going to the same water park.
Naegleria has three morphologically different life stages that change based on environmental conditions
Transformation of amoeba into flagellates
The ability for Naegleria to divide rapidly in warm and stagnant water
Heat- loving
Distinct nuclear envelope
Can only feed and develop in amoeba stage
All Naegleria species are sensitive to amphotericin B

It is highly unlikely that Naegleria will ever be eradicated because...

There are over 30 types of Naegleria
Naegleria's ability to transform between physical stages make the parasite tolerable to changes in conditions that may be used for eradication
Naegleria can be found in many domestic water supplies and bodies of water in the US and reproduces quickly through binary fission meaning that the parasite is most likely too numerous for complete eradication
There is also no current vaccine or true cure to Naegleria Fowleri so there is still lots of research to be done before eradication, if possible.
- A common cause of Naegleria Fowleri is the neti- pot if the water is contaminated.

- In nature, the parasite is most abundant during the summer months, due to the warm temperature.

-60% of all cases of Naegleria Fowleri ever recorded in the US were children under the age of thirteen.
- 80% of all cases recorded in the US were males
Anderson. Graph of People Affected by Naegleria. N.d. Katv, New York. World Now. Web. 7 Oct. 2014.
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"Fast Facts: Brain-Eating Amoeba Naegleria Fowleri." Fox News. FOX News Network, 27 Sept. 2007. Web. 8 Oct. 2014. <http://www.foxnews.com/story/2007/09/27/fast-facts-brain-eating-amoeba-naegleria-fowleri/>.
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"Girl, 12, Contracts Brain-Eating Amoeba During Swim." ABC News. ABC News Network, n.d. Web. 4 Oct. 2014. <http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/brain-eating-amoeba-kali-hardig-12-contracts-brain-19812968>.
"Important Facts You Should Know About Brain Eating Amoeba - Living Fit, Healthy and Happy (SM)." 'Living Fit, Healthy and Happy (SM)'. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct. 2014. <http://www.livingfithealthyandhappy.com/2011/08/important-facts-you-should-know-about-brain-eating-amoeba.html>.
"Laboratory Science." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 10 Mar. 2014. Web. 8 Oct. 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/lab_science.html>.
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Naegleria evolved from a pathogen found in Australia
Naegleria Fowleri is believed to have evolved from the nonpathogenic Naegleria Iovaniesnsis in America
From a Different Perspective...
Naegleria could be considered unsuccessful because after Naegleria eats the brain of the host, the amoeba must find a new host which is a difficult task.
Full transcript