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Transcript of URBAN DESIGN
Peter Shirley is a professor in the School of Computing at the University of Utah.
He is a member of the Visual Simulation Group, whose work focuses on the creation of images for the human visual system, including static and dynamic imagery for traditional displays and immersive environments
Cliff Moughtin is an emeritus Professor he holds degrees in Architecture and Planning awarded by the University of Liverpool .
He was also awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by The Queen's University of Belfaset.
He was Professor of Planning in The Queen's University Belfast and Nottingham University.
He is the author of a number of books including the series of four Urban Design titles for Architectural Press.
Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance.
the rapid growth of towns and cities in the nineteenth century soon led to calls for parks to be provided for the health of factory workers of what we now call sustainable development.
Land use is fundamental to :
Urban Enviromental Management
First .. in the late nineteenth and early twentieth about land use and management although the land concerned was rarely in towns.
Second .. in the last quarter of the twentieth century the organization expanded their work to include substantial education ,interpretation
and advocacy programs.
Finally .. the current phase there is new idea of biodiversity which defined as the variety of species their genes and their communities and interactions.
Three phases in the development of nature conservation in Britain
The term first came to the public notice the summit was held on June 13, 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, one of the outputs of the convention on biological diversity – a commitment to conserving and improving global biodiversity signed up to by many countries, including the United Kingdom.
common characteristics include the presence of exotic species and ‘urban specialists’, the masking of the soil profile by the remains of previous development, and the unique assemblages of species which occur when cosmopolitan nature express its self
Brownfield is a term used in urban planning to describe land previously used for industrial purposes or some commercial uses.
Generally, brownfield sites exist in a city's or town's industrial section, on locations with abandoned factories or commercial buildings, or other previously polluting operations. Small brownfields also may be found in many older residential neighborhoods.
Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties
Amongst the building
Typically open spaces take up about one third of urban areas. The resources needed to manage them, such as energy ,chemicals and finance may – or may not – be compensated for by the economic and social values they provide.
The matrix of open spaces performs many such functions for both people and wildlife with its vegetation, permeability and varying degrees of connectedness and isolation within the town,and between the town and the open countryside.
One way of classifying greenspaces is shown in the Figure This simple typology recognizes four landscape types.
Formal landscapes comprise parks, cemeteries, private gardens, institutional Grounds.
Encapsulated countryside includes river valleys, ancient and other woodlands, unimproved grasslands, heathland and Wetlands.
Hampstead heath in London
Sutton park in birmingham
It is green space provide more than function.
It is better to think of the open spaces of a town or city as a multi-faceted matrix, performing a variety of functions and having a variety of uses.
Central park in New York
In multiple uses of green networks barker defines green networks as ". . natural, or permanently vegetated, physically connected spaces situated in areas otherwise built up or used for intensive agriculture, industrial purposes or other intrusive human activities.
Barker also says that ‘‘Green networks with multiple uses and values in urban areas important simply for recreation and for beauty.
Harrison define green space as ‘Land, water and geological features which have been naturally colonised by plants and animals and which are accessible on foot to large numbers of residents.’)
Robert Costanza et have attempted to take our understanding of the multiple functions provided by natural ecosystems a stage further by ascribing monetary values to them.
FOR NATURE CONSERVATION IN URBAN AREAS
some of the planning tools at the disposal of those promoting biodiversity in urban areas. If
many wildlife-rich places have survived or evolved in towns and cities by default, there is a growing realization that they can be retained and improved by design. Some of the key tools are listed here.
United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) a conference in Nairobi, 22 May,1992. It was the result of about four years of work by an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee sponsored by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). About 150 countries identifying priority habitats and species, and developing biodiversity action plans (BAPs) .
The Conservation (Natural Habitats&c) Regulations: European legislation which provides for the designation of sites of European importance: Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs).
Planning Policy Guidance Notes (PPGs) (now becoming Planning Policy Statements (PPSs) in England andWales): Amongst the most significant of these for biodiversity and open spaces , Housing, Nature Conservation ,Sport, Open Space and Recreation .
PPS 3: Housing
Planning Policy Statement 3 (PPS3) underpins the delivery of the Government's strategic housing policy objectives.
PPG 17: Sport and Recreation
This PPG describes the role of the planning system in assessing opportunities and needs for sport and recreation provision and safeguarding open space which has recreational value.
PPS 9: Biodiv. and Geol. Conserv.
PPS9 sets out planning policies on protection of biodiversity and geological conservation through the planning system.
Nature conservation strategies: In the1980s these became relatively popular with planning authorities. A typical strategy describes an area’s nature conservation resources, outlines their merits and importance, and sets out aims and priorities to protect and enhance them, and ensure their proper management.
Local Biodiversity Action Plans LBAPs): Although they are not mandatory, government guidance indicates that local authorities should take them into account, and incorporate them into their Community Strategies.
Community strategies: The Local Government Act 2000 places a duty on every local authority to produce a ‘Community Strategy’ for the improvement of the economic, social and environmental well-being of its residents.
Planning Conditions and Obligations: re private agreements made between local authorities and developers and can be attached to a planning permission to make acceptable development which would otherwise be unacceptable in planning terms These may cover protection of the natural environment, reduction of the impact of a development on local wildlife or habitats, and compensation for the loss of valuable habitat.
. sustainable development has proved to be an elusive concept.
One of the problems with sustainable development is that it was first promoted and identified as a process to help ‘balance’ economic, social and environmental factors.
It is much more useful to approach the subject with integration rather than balance in mind
Hence one of the Government’s four sustainable development objectives is ‘the maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment’.
This approach would justify changing the above objective to ‘achieving appropriate levels ofeconomic growth coupled with high and stable levels of employment’.
Another of the four objectives is ‘effective protection of the environment’.
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Design and planning incorporating sustainable development principles would incorporate the social and economic needs of people, whilst at the same time making provision for the high-quality natural, seminatural and built environments which contribute to those needs.
David Nicholson-Lord (2002) says, ‘Ever since human beings created cities, we have tried to escape them. We have moved out – to suburbs and more recently to distant villages and small towns. We have moved the countryside in – as parks and gardens.’
With compact cities risks another great planning disaster ,
a new era of town cramping which, by ignoring human relationships with nature, will do nothing to secure the long-term stability of the city.By recognising those relationships, it’s possible to envisage a city which is genuinely sustainable, because it fulfils human needs, and a countryside which, while altered, may be greatly
Nicholson-Lord goes on to propose a Manifesto for Green Cities which includes:
1-Scrapping the indicator that measures sustainability by the proportion of brownfield sites redeveloped.
2- Having a new sustainability indicator measuring people’s satisfaction with the urban environment.
3- Having a target for the proportion of managed urban land in designated greenway strategies.
4- Mandatory standards for the quantity and accessibility of urban open spaces.
5- More imaginative greenspace design.
6- Habitat creation.
7- River and wetland restoration and sustainable drainage.
One disadvantage encountered by those trying to change established practices, or ‘retro-fitting’ new ideas and principles to existing towns, is that they may have to work with centuries of infrastructure.
Their vices and virtues have to be accommodated within any new planning and management regimes.
There is a new town being built called Harmony. Describing itself as ‘a new conservation community’, Harmony’s developers plan to build ‘a model for how communities can accommodate a growing population in environmentally intelligent ways’.
Harmony is the brainchild of Martha and Jim Lentz. Jim is one of the developers, and emphasizes that this is a commercial development that has to pay its way.
Martha runs the Harmony Institute, a charitable organization which is pioneering, monitoring and reporting on the environmental aspects of the town and the lives of its residents.
Advisers include Roger Ulrich, Director, Centre for Health Systems and Design at Texas A&M University. Professor, Department of Architecture and Centre for Healthcare Architecture, Chalmers University of Technology.
Another adviser is John Hadidian, Director, Urban Wildlife Programs, the Humane Society of the United States.
The overall goal of Harmony is to promote the peaceful coexistence of (these) human and animal residents within the community while striking a balance between the preservation, use and enjoyment of Harmony’s natural areas. Underlying these objectives are the values of fostering respect for the land, the protection of wildlife and the sensible use and enjoyment of Harmony’s abundant natural and manmade amenities by its residents’.
Restrictions include no trapping of or keeping wild animals and no hunting – although fishing is allowed.
There are also sections on environmental management (which includes encouragement to cultivate native plants), preserved area management and companion animals (pets).
This was launched in 1985, and describes itself as ‘‘. . . a 25-year government-backed partnership which brings together to deliver water quality improvements and waterside regeneration throughout the Mersey Basin river system’.
It is one of the longest-running environmental management programmes in Britain. More importantly, it is unusual in being based on the natural boundaries of a river basin rather than the artificial boundaries of one or more local authorities.
Water quality in the Mersey was severely affected by industrialisation, the Mersey Basin Campaign was established to improve water quality and encourage waterside regeneration. It is a model of sustainable development – using an environmental platform the Campaign has been involved in social inclusion and development through activities, events and recreational provision, and has underpinned the major regeneration programmes of Manchester, Liverpool and other towns.
In the eighteenth century, the Mersey was a famous salmon river, and in the twenty-first century it may be again.
The River Mersey at Liverpool, looking towards the Royal Liver Building
MERSEY BASIN CAMPAIGN
BIRMINGHAM AND THE BLACK COUNTRY BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN
The Plan was put together by a partnership including the five local authorities, the local biological records centre, English Nature, the Environment Agency, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, the University of Wolverhampton and the local Wildlife Trust.
More than sixty organizations in total were involved in the Plan process . It demonstrates just how many people and organizations are involved and interested in biodiversity in one of Britain’s most industrial and heavily populated areas.
the Birmingham and Black Country Biodiversity Partnership have produced a new Local Biodiversity Action Plan (LBAP) in accordance with national and regional guidance, with the emphasis on landscape scale conservation and recognition of the importance of linking habitats with the integration of species management. Despite the urban nature of this region, Birmingham and the Black Country retains a wealth of habitats and species that will benefit from the adoption and implementation of this plan.
The urban environment and its green space network in the West Midlands conurbation is evident in the ‘vision for main habitats and land-uses’ which, as well as the expected focus on habitats like woodland, grassland and wetland, includes sections on urban ‘wasteland’, parks, playing fields and public open space, gardens and allotments, and buildings and the built environment.
The management of urban greenspace should be sensitive to natural features and seasonal changes, physical attributes, the needs of wildlife, current and potential land use, the local community’s needs, and the strategic position of sites in the local network of open spaces.
Understanding the land’s environmental properties, functions, and relationships to the local community is essential to effective and efficient application of the resources. Crucial to sustainable land management is understanding the various functions of the land in question.
Not understanding or acknowledging this has led to a decline in, for example, parks and gardens over the past forty or so years.
A Countryside Agency for the Heritage Lottery Fund estimated that there are 27 000 parks in Britain, and that although £630 million is spent on them each year, this is far less than twenty years ago.
Maintenance costs are, of course, dictated by end use.
Ornamental landscaping usually requires intensive and relatively expensive maintenance, whereas more informal, seminatural treatments tend to incur lower costs.
Sustainable maintenance practices offer a cost-effective alternative to the management of land.
A FRAMEWORK FOR A SUSTAINABLE CITY LANDSCAPE
Modern lifestyles in the developed world mean that many people can choose where to live and work .
The main plank of urban policy now is to halt and, if possible, to reverse this trend by making towns attractive enough for people to want to live in them. Hence the talk of an urban renaissance and the need to develop sustainable communities.
It is important to recognize that providing, managing and maintaining an accessible network of urban open spaces is always going to be more about process than product .
The importance of recognizing that urban greenspaces are literally ‘living spaces', and the necessity for management processes to be driven by local people with expert assistance,not the other way round.
A sustainable city landscape is not one set in aspic, unchanging, looking back to what has, or might have been.
It is one which provides for today whilst looking forward to what will be needed. It should incorporate some constants but needs also to be capable of adaptation.
By understanding how landuse relates to and affects people’s lives and the quality of their environment we can incorporate changes in a planned and proactive way, and move open spaces into the mainstream of urban planning and design.
The River Mersey empties into the Manchester Ship Canal at Irlam
Barker at the Vermont State Fair, 1941
is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality. The design, operation and maintenance is usually done by government, but may occasionally be contracted out to a private sector company.
Dr. Zahraa Zawawi