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Gene Regulation and the Environment
Transcript of Gene Regulation and the Environment
Any questions? Works Cited A Review: DNA to Protein Gene Regulation and the Environment Transcription Regulation of Gene Expression The Potential of RNA Interference "The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) may well be one of the transforming events in biology in the past decade. RNAi can result in gene silencing or even in the expulsion of sequences from the genome...It also has the potential to be exploited therapeutically, and clinical trials to test this possibility [are being conducted]..."
- Unlocking the potential of the human genome with RNA interference, by Gregory J. Hannon & John J. Rossi (Nature) RNA Interference How Does RNA Interference Relate to the Environment? elimination of limiting factor of disease - possible negative effect Can RNA interference be used to prevent disease? Translation -DNA to mRNA.
1. DNA is unzipped by helicase.
2. RNA polymerase binds to the template strand of DNA.
3. RNA polymerase lays down nucleotides according to base pair rules: A and U, C and G
4. The new strand of mRNA is cut free from the template.
-codon: three-letter set of nucleotides in mRNA - mRNA codons changed into sequence of amino acids.
1. mRNA attaches to a ribosome.
2. tRNA anticodons match up to the mRNA codons (A-U, C-G)
3. The amino acids carried by tRNA connect with peptide bonds.
4. A polypeptide is produced, which then can form a protein. 1. DNA Access Heterochromatin: very tighly packed DNA, unavailable for transcription
Euchromatin: less tightly packed DNA, available for transcription 2. Pre-Transcription Transcription factors are needed for RNA polymerase to begin transcription.
Transcription factor availability allows eukaryotes to accomplish differential gene expression. 3. Post-Transcription 5' cap: modified guanine
3' poly A tail: adenine
contribute to functionality, protection, and transport of mRNA. Exons, or the parts of the genetic code that are expressed, are spliced together, while the introns are removed.
Alternative splicing of exons allows for multiple genes to be made from one transcript. 4. Pre-Translation RNA interference involves tiny RNA molecules called microRNA. If a piece of mRNA has a sequence complementary to that of a microRNA, it is tagged and does not get translated. Remember this! We will return to this shortly! 5. Post-Translation Unnecessary proteins left around are tagged by ubiquitin, transported to a proteasome, and broken down. What you learned just a little while ago:
"RNA interference involves tiny RNA molecules called microRNA. If a piece of mRNA has a sequence complementary to that of a microRNA, it is tagged and does not get translated." So . . . What does that actually mean for an organism? RNA interference is like a cop. "RNA interference has been used as a research tool to control the expression of specific genes in numerous experimental organisms and has potential as a therapeutic strategy to reduce the expression of problem genes."
- Revealing the world of RNA interference, by Craig C. Mello & Darryl Conte, Jr. (Nature) Influenza A : cell lines, embryonated chicken eggs
Hepatitis B : cultured cells, mouse liver cells
Leukemia : cell lines
Oncogenic K-RAS(V12) allele : human pancreatic carcinoma cells "Ultimately, the exquisite specificity of RNAi may make it possible to silence a disease-causing mutant allele specifically without affecting the normal allele."
- RNA interference, by Gregory J. Hannon (Nature) elimination of deadly diseases
more viable, successful, and healthy populations
more active and diverse ecosystems. Potential Advantages Potential Disadvantages no knowledge about side effects of RNAi therapy Where Can We Go From Here? Future of RNA Interference Suggestions for Further Research continued gene therapy experimentation
transitioning from cell lines and organ specimens to living organisms long term observation
different stages of development