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Transcript of Psychology Project
You Are Getting Defensive Again Forty Studies:
Learning to Be Depressed Triggers A defense mechanism is "A mental process initiated, typically unconsciously, to avoid conscious conflict or anxiety." Charlie uses mostly a single defense mechanism throughout the story, up until the very end. His memories of molestation by his aunt were repressed. He suffers some of the consequences of these events that he does not consciously remember, most prominently his "not being there." By not participating in life, Charlie never remembers his trauma. Defense Mechanisms Charlie and Selena both use defense mechanisms. They both repress the memories of being molested by family members as children. While other defense mechanisms are used, repression is the common one between them, and it carries throughout their stories. Triggers Both Selena's and Charlie's memories of molestation are remembered by the end of their respective stories. Each undergoes an experience that is in some way similar to their previous, forgotten, experiences. Charlie's memories are triggered by fooling around with Sam after she tells him that "Sometimes, it's like your not even there." When he takes an active role in his life and what he wants, his memories return. The actions that he and Sam partake in trigger his memories of his Aunt Helen molesting him, presumably using similar actions. A trigger is "something that sets off a memory tape or flashback transporting the person back to the event of her/his original trauma." Freud's Model of Unconscious Motivation Freud's Theory of Unconscious Motivation According to the article in Fort Studies, when the id encroaches on the ego (or when the Unconscious level impinges on the Preconscious level) we feel what Freud called "free-floating anxiety." Since the causes of this anxiety are still mostly unconscious, we do not understand why we feel this way. We become motivated to change this feeling, and so the ego employs Defense Mechanisms to do so. Defense Mechanisms Each character in the movie Dolores Claiborne uses various defense mechanisms. Dolores Claiborne Selena Claiborne Denial--> Dolores repeats many times over that she can't believe that Selena doesn't remember what happened to her. She denies that Selena could have forgotten such events. Avoidance--> Dolores is taken to the police station because she is under suspicion of murdering Vera. She is seen straightening up the room she is kept in. She is avoiding the problem at hand. Dolores also refuses a lawyer at this time for the reason that she wishes to avoid the idea of a trial and the past. Repression--> Selena's most prominent defense mechanism. She does not remember the times her father molested her. She does not remember being ruthlessly interrogated by Detective Mackey. She also has no conscious memories of most of her parents' fights from her childhood. Denial--> Selena has multiple instances of using denial. She calls the problems plaguing her family a "small domestic drama." When her mother worries that she is drinking too much, Selena responds by saying "I know my limits." She is in denial of the gravity of her family problems and of her coping with alcohol. Intellectualization--> Dolores confronts Selena about her lost memories. Dolores is angry at her daughter's inability to remember. Selena retaliates with what Dolores refers to as "Vassar language." Triggers Detective Mackey There are similarities in Detective Mackey and Selena's personalities and use of defense mechanisms. They are both "workaholics." Their work is a distraction for their personal problems. This is both avoidance and compensation. Mackey used to have a problem with alcohol, the same that Selena is suffering now. 5 Types of Defense Mechanisms Outlined in Article 1. Repression--> Called the most common mechanism
This is when a person pushes the id's desires back into the unconscious so the anxiety is no longer felt. 2. Regression--> This is when a person acts out behaviors from an earlier stage of development. 3. Projection--> This is when a person sees his unconscious (id) urges in other people's behavior. 4. Reaction Formation--> This is when a person behaves in the exact opposite of id's urges. 5. Sublimation--> This is when a person finds a socially acceptable way of getting rid of the anxiousness that is the result of the id's urges. Defense Mechanisms Vera Donovan Displacement--> Vera speaks earnestly to her husband. When he does not pay her much attention, she turns to Dolores and takes out her frustration and disappointment by yelling, "Six pins, Dolores! You know I like six pins, not five!" Regression--> Vera Donovan is at this point very old. She is lonely, sad, and in pain. She begs for her "china pig," which plays a calming tune. This song is presumably one she remembers in relation to happier times. Selena's repressed memories are triggered on the ferry boat away from the island. The man serving the coffee is the same man who once served Selena and her father hot chocolate. She sees the cup has the same logo and walks outside of the cabin. Selena sees a bench and she suddenly remembers a full memory of one of the times her father took advantage of her. Repression and Regression are present in Dolores Claiborne's characters. Selena exhibits repression and Vera exhibits regression. Selena pushes the memories that are causing the anxiety in her life back into her unconscious. Vera cries out for the china pig from her younger years that plays a song that comforts her. Depression and "Learned Helplessness" As people, we tend to avoid behaviors that will lead to unpleasant, or undesirable consequences, while performing those that will lead to desirable consequences. "Learned helplessness," as described by Martin Seligman (a well-known behavioral psychologist), is when a person becomes depressed because of repeatedly failed attempts at exercising control in the events of his/her life. Another way of stating this is that when a person behaves in a way that should produce positive results, and the opposite occurs, eventually they will become depressed.
Jean Kilbourne is recognized internationally for her work related to the portrayal of women in advertising. She has been researching since she began her studies in the 1960's. Her work in the connection between advertising and public health issues including, eating disorders, addiction, and violence against women. She has released four installations of her documentary "Killing Us Softly: Advertising’s Image of Women" and award winning books such as, Can’t Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel, as well as the book So Sexy So Soon: The New Sexualized Childhood and What Parents Can Do to Protect Their Kids (with Diane E. Levin). The thinness of models is caused by a combination of genetics and by eating insufficient amounts of food. Only about 5% of women are born with a model's body, and an hour glass figure is made up with plastic surgery. What isn't perfect is fixed with photo manipulating software, such as Photoshop. Women and girls are conditioned to strive for this look of "ideal female beauty," as dangerously thin or fake as it is, and to feel, "ashamed and guilty when we fail."
To women and girls, models are considered beautiful, so the logically the only way to be beautiful is to look like that. Advertising also shows them the image of relationships. The idea is that only a beautiful woman can attract a partner, and only models are beautiful. It is a string of logic that a girl or woman can create and follow easily, without thinking about the consequences or how this look is accomplished.
Advertising thus can lead to eating disorders, addiction to substances, and low/non-existence self-esteem and self-confidence. This documentary focuses on how women are portrayed in advertising and the effects of this. It points out many stating facts about what is shown to us by advertising:
Concepts of love, sexuality
Images of success
Images of normalcy
Who we are, who we should be
And specifically related to women:
What is most important is on the outside
Women are shown as overly sexualized objects in advertising.
They are shown in weak and submissive poses, while men are shown as strong and dominant figures.
These advertisements "surround us with the image of ideal female beauty."
The prevalence of advertising in our lives is immense. And the effects are wide spread and dangerous.
Jean Kilbourne The Effects of Advertising on Women Killing Us Softly The Effects of Advertising on Society In "Killing Us Softly," Jean Kilbourne states that women's bodies being turned into objects, "of course affects female self-esteem, it also does something even more insidious, it creates a climate in which there is wide-spread violence against women." This is a huge effect on not just women, but society as a whole. If women are turned into objects, they are less than human. the more people are exposed to this idea, the more they will believe it, until women are no longer treated as human beings and society will regress. She does acknowledge that advertising in itself does not create violence, but the idea of a woman being less than a human being is the idea she wishes to prevent in the joint consciousness of society. Anna Patterson
C Block Charlie's Depression and Helplessness Charlie can be described as helpless. It is documented in the story that his family has found him sleeping in random places in the house naked. It is also said that he often fell asleep for no reason at all. Charlie has also confessed to being depressed. This is related to his "not participating" in life. Emotional State Charlie refers to his depressive, emotionally unstable state as him being "messy." Charlie cries often, but it is not a "normal" kind of crying. He describes it as a panicky type of crying that he cannot stop. This crying takes place when he is happy, sad, overwhelmed, anxious, any sort of high emotional state. He says that his brother picked him up when he was too messy after Micheal's suicide. He gets "messy" when he is confronted by difficult issues. There are also signs he is depressed. After his Aunt Helen's death, he wen to "a bad place." He admits that he went there and in the process things just " slip away" until when he opens his eyes, he sees nothing.
There is also the matter of "not participating." His English teacher, who becomes a mentor to him, warns him that "sometimes people use thoughts to not participate in life." This is a theme that is present throughout the book. Charlie takes a passive role in everything around him. This experiment was conducted with dogs, by administering shocks to the two dogs facing each other. One dog needed only to touch his head to the panels on either side to stop the shocks. the other had no way to stop them, do as it may. After conditioning the dogs like this, the three groups, those with control to stop the shocks, one group not able to top the shocks, and a control group, were subjected to a test. This test was used to determine whether or not the dogs would try to escape the shocks, given their conditioning. The results are as to be expected:
The entire first group escaped, with the time it took decreasing each time.
The second group failed nearly entirely, and those that did escape took almost all of the allotted time.
Though the study was originally done with dogs, one of the scientists later applied it to humans. Seligman developed a widely accepted model of depression, both its origins and treatments. The Study Self-Image Patrick, Charlie's friend, is the first to give him the reason as to why people change. He says, "You take girls, for example. They’re copying their moms and magazines and everything to know how to act around guys." Charlie remembers his friend Susan. After middle schools, she had gotten "prettier" and acted a lot dumber. She didn't have braces anymore, she grew, and she acted very silly around boys so that they would like her. Girls behavior is not influenced by what they want, but by what society, their mothers and magazines, dictate. Image of Girls The view of girls and how they learn to grow up is similar in both the Perks of Being a Wallflower and Killing Us Softly. Both acknowledge that girls and women (meaning the girls' mothers, who probably learned the same way) are influenced heavily by society and advertising. Magazines are a prime advertising method. Relationships are also brought to attention. Killing Us Softly states that girls and women see the ideal of a relationship in advertising, and the Perks of being a Wallflower seconds this idea with the statement that girls learn how to get a guy by copying magazines. Appearance Killing Us Softly tells us that advertising relates that what is most important is appearance and "ideal" beauty. In essence, if the most important thing is appearance, then it is also who we are. This is an idea that Sophie grapples with, "would I be a different person if I looked different?" She also says that she is often "dissatisfied" with her appearance. Her scrutiny is detailed and shows she has spent time thinking about it. This is exactly what a girl might do in trying to become more "beautiful," more like a model in advertising. Who Am I? Sophie struggles with this question. It is the very first one asked and one of the most difficult. She does not know where to begin. Is she her name? Her appearance? Her friends? What she feels? Broken down, here are her thoughts:
She remembers that she might have been named Lillemor. She thought about what it would be like to introduce herself as Lillemor Amundsen, but "it was someone else who kept introducing herself," and not her. But there must be more than that.
Sophie looks in the mirror. She thinks "her nose was too small and her mouth was a bit too big. And her ears were much to close to her eyes," but that her straight, dark hair was the worst of it. But that couldn't be all, after all, she "hadn't been allowed to have a say in what she would look like."
She realizes that she could choose her friends, but not herself.
Understanding Who You Are and Feeling Infinite Sophie and Charlie spend their respective stories trying to understand themselves. Charlie must remember his past and start participating, Sophie must learn about he world a consider the question "Who Am I?"
The idea of looks, related by Patrick's quote and Sophie's thoughts on her appearance, is important as well. After her name, Sophie immediately considers the possibility that her appearance is who she is. This is part of the idea that girls do not choose who they are, they copy what is around them.
Sophie's thought, "Who had jolted Sophie out of her everyday existence and suddenly brought her face to face with the great riddles of the universe?" is mirrored in Charlie's quote, "In that moment, I swear we were infinite." Both of them are present in the world they live in, concerned with simple things that mean so much more. Overview Sophie Amundsen's life, History, the Philosophy of the world, the History of Philosophy, and questions to ponder are make up "Sophie's World." She must consider the grand questions of life itself.
"Who had jolted Sophie out of her everyday existence and suddenly brought her face to face with the great riddles of the universe?" This question encompasses the idea of the book. Sophie's world, her everyday existence, the riddles of the universe, the questions that are sent to her, and the universe itself is something huge and wondrous. Summary of Article Sigmund Freud is one of the foremost figures of psychology. His studies focused on the unconscious. As defined in this article, the unconscious it " a roiling dungeon of painful memories...now and then escaping into awareness by way of dreams, slips of the tongue and mental illness." Freud identified childhood experience as the cornerstone of a person's character. He realized that things like mental illness could be cured by psychoanalysis. Freud's ideas are based on the idea that every human is conflicted, that some of the id's desires are unacceptable and so are kept in the unconscious. There has been a rise in drug treatment, instead of simply "talk therapy" and analysis. Freud advocated for drug therapy at one point in his career. The drug was cocaine. But even though his thinking and theories were flawed in many ways, Freud is a prominent figure in our lives, whether we realize it or not. He gave something to society and human kind that is irreplaceable; a different perspective. Knowing One's Self A portion of this article relates to how Freud's advancements in psychology have given people a tool to know themselves. It cites a woman who decided she had a good life, "but it could be better." She spent four hours a week for four years in therapy. The questions she had to face made "[her] dig deeper into [her]self."
The reason that psychoanalysis works is that a person is confronted with their actions and decisions. One must go over their life and see it form a different, more neutral perspective and then one will know him/herself. Freud in Sophie's World Psychoanalysis plays a large role. The kids must go into the major's unconscious. This is done by using dream interpretation and psychoanalysis. The idea behind psychoanalysis is also relevant in light of Sophie's very first question, "Who Are You?" Psychoanalysis entails understanding who you are and Sophie must use all her learned techniques figure out who she is. Freud's Theory of Unconscious Motivation and Model of Unconscious Motivation are explored in depthly in Sophie's World. Example's of the id's "pleasure principle", such as a baby crying out, the ego's "reality principle, having to work for what you want, and the superego's conscience, an echo of a parent saying "Naughty, Naughty, don't do that!" are used.
Freud's Model In Sophie's World, Freud's iceberg model is investigated and taught to Sophie. Freud's Theory of Unconscious Motivation is as follows:
The id--> the basic desires of a human being, "pleasure principle," instant gratification, "I want"
The superego--> conscience of a human being, left from moral, parental teachings, "I should"
The ego--> the neutral self, "reality principle," weighs between id and superego, "I need" Learning about Freud Hilde is reading another section of the philosophy pages she has. These focus on Freud. His Theory of Unconscious Motivation and Model of Unconscious Motivation are both prominent. Sophie learns about Freud this way. Background on Freud himself, his early work, the Interpretation of Dreams, the id, ego, superego, and iceberg model, are all topics of discussion here and further Sophie's understanding of the world and the people in it. She is now equipped with the tool of psychology. Who Are you? Charlie, like everyone else in the world, must understand who he is. As a teenager, this is very difficult, made especially so by his past experiences. His repressed memories of molestation are a very large part of who he is, but as he cannot consciously remember them, he does not know who he is. By the end of his story, Charlie is beginning to figure out who he is.