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Transcript of Classroom Management
November 18, 2013
Dr. Nancy Bailey
Classroom management is an integral part of the teaching process. A thorough classroom management plan can help a teacher successfully instruct students while maintaining a positive and safe learning environment. Creating a classroom management plan is not an easy task because there is much to consider. Some things a teacher will consider when planning are the purpose of the plan, his or her personal classroom management philosophy, diversity within the classroom, proven classroom management models, and the implications his or her philosophy will have on him or herself, the students, and the classroom environment. Following is an explanation of each of these elements as they pertain to classroom management in the elementary classroom.
Classroom Management in an Elementary Classroom
Classroom management for an elementary classroom can be defined broadly as,
Strategies for assuring physical and psychological safety in the classroom; techniques for changing student misbehaviors and for teaching self-discipline; methods of assuring an orderly progression of events during the school day; and instructional techniques that contribute to students’ positive behaviors
~Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 4~
Need for Classroom Management
Considerations for Personal Philosophy of Classoom Management
When creating a personal philosophy of classroom management, a teacher should consider their personal philosophy of education to ensure the two align. They should also consider how they believe students should be disciplined, such as teaching or imposing discipline. Teachers should also consider research and best practices that are evidence-based. They should also consider the types of activities they plan to use and whether they will mesh with the personal philosophy of classroom management. A teacher should also consider the diversity and differentiation needs of students he or she will be teaching. Special needs should receive careful consideration. A teacher should also consider what classroom management is and how others have done it successfully. Manning and Bucher (2013) said that,
"It may surprise you to see that we link classroom management and instruction. The two are not separate entities. Indeed, they must go hand in hand, with the management plan providing the setting and support in which good instruction exists. An educator who does not have good management skills will have a difficult time instructing students" (p. 5).
Diverse Student Population
Classroom Management Models
Examples of classroom management techniques
The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) developed a set of standards that identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that a high-quality educator should possess (Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 4). Each of the standards requires the use of an embedded, effective classroom management plan so that a teacher's knowledge, skills, and attitudes can properly be disseminated. If a teacher does not have an embedded classroom management plan, they pose the risk of spending more time addressing behavioral issues than teaching.
Teach students expectations and routines the first week of school and as needed.
Invoke student's logical thinking skills and emotional intelligence when solving behavioral issues.
Utilize a variety of instructional strategies that are proven to engage students, such as project-based learning, group activities, and hands-on experiences.
Consider the attention span of a particular group of students when deciding the length of each lesson.
Plan pacers, songs, drills, and smooth transitions that keep students busy doing appropriate things at all times of the day. The teacher in the video explains this idea.
Classroom management for an elementary classroom
Need for a classroom management plan
Considerations when developing a personal philosophy for classroom management
Affect of a diverse student population on classroom management planning
Classroom management models
Implications of personal philosophy for the teacher, students, and the classroom environment
Manning, M. L., & Bucher, K. T. (2013). Classroom management: Models, applications, and cases (3nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
Input Determines Output
Assure physical and psychological safety
Remove any physical hazards, such as broken chairs, desks, or equipment
Remove any blockages on evacuation routes and conduct regular evacuation drills
Teacher does not yell at, belittle, or physically harm students in any way
Zero bullying policy
Attention to emotional intelligence
Changing Student Misbehaviors
and Teaching Self-discipline
Appeal to emotional intelligence. "How would you like it if..."
Assuring an Orderly Progression of Events During the School Day
Set and adhere to a schedule
Plan and teach routines
Plan smooth transitions
Learning by doing
Appropriate lesson length
Aligns with Personal Philosophy
Check each element of the classroom management plan against personal philosophy to ensure a complimentary relationship
Should discipline be taught or imposed
Should teachers be democratic or autocratic
Does punishment work to improve or hinder student's behavior
Know the why behind the use of specific management techniques and strategies
Classroom management helps teachers achieve NTASC standards for educators by helping them create a positive environment that is conducive to learning
Diverse Group of Happy Learners
Personal philosophy of education
Research and best practices
Types of activities teacher prefers
Definition of classroom management
Need for management plan
Different students need different things when it comes to classroom management. A teacher needs to consider these differences as they form a classroom management plan. Some things to consider are the developmental level of the age group he or she is going to teach, the management strategies of other teachers in the same grade level, school policies, parent expectations, teacher expectations, and developmentally appropriate classroom management efforts (Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 7), A teacher should also consider his or her student's culture, ethnicity, special needs, differentiation needs, gender, and any other difference that may require attention. For example, less mature students may need a tighter framework and more mature students more flexibility. This means that a less mature student will need the expectations reiterated more frequently and detailed instructions. A more mature student on the other hand, can remember and adhere to the expectations with little to no guidance. A high-quality educator knows that the needs of all students need to be considered and met so that students can learn and be safe at school. This is not an easy task, at least not at first, but it can and must be done.
Manning and Bucher (2013) quoted Bosch regarding classroom management,
"Management looks at the organization and operation of a classroom, including classroom arrangement, the individuals in the classroom, the behavior of the teacher and students, the instructional strategies used by the teacher, the interactions of the students and teacher, the atmosphere of the school, and the community in which the school is located" (p. 14).
There are numerous classroom management models based on theory and research that aim to answer how each of these items should be addressed. However, two models stand out from the rest. They are Jerome Freiberg's, Community Approaches Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline model, and Alfie Kohn's Beyond Discipline. I chose these models/theories because they both consider the classroom as a place where a community of caring individuals come together to learn in a way that is voluntary and conscious.
Jerome Freiberg's model is an important one to consider because he emphasizes a school-wide approach to improving behavior, creating a positive school climate, and improving academic achievement (Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 42), This is important because the schools and teachers are expected to implement the common core standards in the schools. It makes sense to also use a school-wide approach to classroom management so that each student can expect consistency throughout the school. Freiberg's model also stands out because it suggests that teachers should use caring, cooperation, and self-discipline (p. 42). Student's will likely behave better when they are valued by their learning community and are taught to be in control of their own behavior. A way that students are encouraged to control their own behavior under this model is by helping create a class constitution (p. 171),
Alfie Kohn's Beyond Discipline theory stands out because it explains why teachers should not control students using tactics, such as rewards, bribes, threats, coercion, or punishments, but rather, should find out what students need and how to meet those needs (p. 171). Teachers should not be policemen who take responsibility for student behavior. Student's should take responsibility for their own behavior and should be taught why they are asked to behave a certain way and how it will be good for them. Kohn called this technique "deep modeling." Deep modeling goes beyond modeling appropriate behavior and aims to teach students "to see what is behind or beneath ethical decisions" (p. 171). Kohn's theory can also be seen as one of the best because it explains students as intrinsically good and capable of managing themselves. Other theories and models of classroom management are based on the premise that children are naturally bad and need to be controlled. Children are more capable than many people give them credit for so the expectations should be high. If behavior problems do arise it is most likely the teacher's error so he or she should ask, "how can I get my students back on task"" rather than threatening or bribing the students (p. 174)? Teaching has lasting effects while control techniques are usually temporary. Children deserve to learn lasting lessons in self-control.
Community Approaches Consistency Management and
With this schoolwide model, teachers improve
behavior, school climate, and academic
achievement. Using caring and cooperation,
they also teach self-discipline in the classroom.
(Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 42)
Community Approaches, Beyond Discipline
The new disciplines are no better than the old disciplines. They still emphasize rewards, punishments, and consequences. Educators must consider students from positive perspectives and must believe that they will
make correct decisions.
(Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 42)
• Deep modeling
• New Disciplines
(Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 171)
Consistency Management and
Cooperative Discipline (CMCD)
• 1-minute student managers
(Manning & Bucher, 2013, p. 171)
Higher self-worth for students and teachers
Students understand why they should do something
Teacher does not become policeman
Positive learning environment
Instructional strategies and techniques keep students engaged
Classroom management is an integral part of the teaching process. A thorough classroom management plan can help a teacher successfully instruct students while maintaining a positive and safe learning environment. Creating a classroom management plan is not an easy task because there is much to consider. Some things a teacher will consider when planning are the purpose of the plan, his or her personal classroom management philosophy, diversity within the classroom, proven classroom management models, and the implications his or her philosophy will have on him or herself, the students, and the classroom environment. The result should be....