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Copy of Oral Language Strategies in the SERR Classroom
Transcript of Copy of Oral Language Strategies in the SERR Classroom
-Speech Language Pathologists (SLP'S) have many tools and resources to build oral language in your classroom.
-Every school is assigned a Speech Language Pathologist. Don't be shy, look for him/her!
- SLP's can support:
- Oral and Written Language
- Vocabulary Building
- Phonological Awareness Skills
- Literacy Skills such as sequencing, story building, story retell and narrative development.
- Social skills
- Development of IEP goals (i.e. Recommendations and goals at the end of their report are often easily adaptable for IEPs).
And much more! What specific resources would you suggest to utilize in my room? How about Expressive Oral and Written Language?
Expanding Expression Tool
It is a multi-sensory approach for improving both oral and written language. It is a way to teach students how to give informative descriptions and definitions by using VISUAL, Auditory and TACTILE cues to facilitate the organization of langauge.
It can also be used for biographies, summarizing narratives, personal experiences, organizes new and prior knowledge
Helps move students from word to phrase to paragraph to multi-paragraph written expression.
Supports the collaboration with SERR teachers, LST's, parents, students and SLP's!
Also supports the development of vocabulary, defining, describing, similarities and differences, written expression, making associations, stating functions of objects and categorization.
It can be used at many different levels which makes it wonderful for the students in the SERR classrooms. Where do we begin????? What does each bead mean?
- Each colour coded symbol represents 6 language elements:
Location Here's what the EET looks like! Check out these samples http://www.expandingexpression.com/ "Wh" Questions Who?
These "wh" questions are critical for students to comprehend and use. They are present during several oral language areas such as story retell ("Who is in the story"), conversation ("Why did you enjoy this story?"), sequencing ("How did the seed grow?), comparing and contrasting ("How is it the same/different") and question formulation. "Wh" Questions Some students need explicit instruction between different "wh' questions.
- Introduce one question at a time.
- Compare and contrast two different questions (i.e. Who vs. What)
- Provide students with prompts for question formulation (i.e. "Where is.....")and answers (i.e. First, then, next)
- Provide visuals of each "Wh" question (i.e. Curiosity the Clown, RTI manual) Create many opportunities for your students to engage in "wh' questions:
- News telling
Who is in your news?
Where does this news take place?
What is your news about?
When did your news happen?
Why did you want to share your news?
After students create something have them share what they made.
Tell us what you made.
Tell us how you made it.
What did you use to make it?
What were the steps?
What things did you have to remember to make it?
What group/category does it belong to?
What does it do?
How do you use it?
What is it made of?
What parts does it have?
Where do you keep it?
Do These questions sound familiar??? Sequencing This is an important skill as it helps develop linear thinking, sequencing skills along with organization of expressive and receptive language skills.
Sequencing is the stepping stone to narratives, story retell and story building (i.e. Beginning, middle, end & First, next, then, finally).
Students in SERR rooms benefit from the use of visuals to help cue them with comprehension, language organization and what type of information to provide. Sequencing Ideas - Stories
At the beginning of the story.....
First we put the dirt in the cup.....
- Cut and paste pictures from stories or events into their proper order
Getting ready to go outside
Events in a story
First we visited my Grandma, then we swam in her pool..... Story Building Sequencing helps foster story building and narrative development which also develops an understanding of story grammar/structure.
For example: Beginning, middle and end can lead to "Once upon a time", the problem, solution in the story and then to the ending.
Knowledge of story grammar elements and the concepts they represent are important for oral and written comprehension as well as expression.
There are many tools available that help students develop these skills in a multi sensory way. Webber Story Builder Interactive, symbol-based system for teaching components of a story and to support the develop of story retell.
Excellent tool to use during and after a story to help the students identify the parts of the story such as the characters, setting, problem, events, solutions, ending and feelings.
Contains flannel cut outs that serve as visual cues to aid with remembering information.
Can also be used to answer "Wh" questions about the story (i.e. "Who were the characters?"; "Where was the setting?").
This resource also comes with graphic organizers and writing prompts to support the development of this skill.
Modeling: The teacher reads a story to the students then puts on the story glove and retells the
story, pointing to the visuals on the glove (or to the pictures on the hanger).
Interactive: The visuals for the hanger/story glove are placed in a bag. After the teacher reads a storystudents take turns drawing a visual from the bag and telling about that part of the story. Then the student can point to the visual on the hanger or attach the visual to the glove.
Small Group: Students are divided in small groups with a book and a story hanger orglove. Assign one student to be the leader. Students read the story together or listen to a story on a tape recorder. Then the leader puts on the story glove or holds onto the hanger and uses it to guide the discussion of the story.
Independent: Have story hanger or glove available at the class library for students to use when reading independently or with a buddy. How to use Story Hanger and Gloves Story Gloves Story gloves are a
“hands on”approach to
retelling a story with
visual clues. Using the
story gloves helps
construct meaning from text. After reading a story, discuss it with the story hanger or glove then encourage the students to write the information on a visual organizer. The organizer may also be used for interactive writing. Students can write about the story and colour a picture on their own story grammar organizer. These organizers are an effective step by step way to include writing in the reading lesson. Story Retell Hanger Another great hands on approach to story retell.
Have the hanger available and visible at all times.
Choose a familiar story and introduce one or two icons. Show the picture and introduce the story grammar element and discuss it.
Gradually add icons so that it eventually becomes complete.
Refer to it during read a loud or during story activities.
After reading ask questions containing the story grammar words which will encourage students to use them in their own oral and written language vocabulary.
Use story grammar in your own stories to help familiarize the students with the vocabulary. A few more organizers.... Let's build vocabulary!!! Direct instruction of vocabulary can increase vocabulary learning and understanding. It is also an effective way to enrich students' language abilities.
Here are some numbers:
School aged children are learning approximately 7 new vocabulary words a day.
Some students are only learning 1-2.
Students in grade 3 to 9 encounter during reading between 500,000 to 1,000,000 words per year. (Anderson & Nagy)
Less able students know less than 1% of new words while highly skilled readers know only 4% of new words.
So what does this mean for our SERR Students? Can they learn new words??? Sure they can! What influences vocabulary acquisition? Quantity: Children who hear more words acquire more words.
Frequency: A word that is repeated more often is learned quicker.
Quality: Children who hear a higher level of sophisticated words have a greater knowledge than others.
Context: Children are more likely to learn new words if they are embedded in helpful instructive interactions and if they are learned in context. Vocabulary Tiers Tier 1: Basic words that generally don't require instruction(i.e. big, happy, baby)
Tier 2: High frequency words that enhance and specify word meaning across many contexts (i.e. delighted, terrified, gigantic). These words typically need instruction of their word meaning.
Tier 3: Frequency is low and limited to their domain(i.e. tundra, photosynthesis, etc).
We want our students to increase their Tier 2 words! How do we do this? Building Tier 2 Vocabulary Books are an excellent way to learn these types of words.
If a student already understands the concept of a Tier 1 word (ie. wet), then they could potentially learn the Tier 2 word (i.e. soaked or drenched). What is the process? The "Text Talk" approach by Beck & McKeon is effective: While reading, choose a word that is unfamiliar to the child but is a concept that they already know or identify with and use in normal conversation.
- First, the word should be CONTEXTUALIZED for it's role in the story.
- Then have the children REPEAT the word.
- Next, the meaning is explained in a "friendly" way. Use a word they already know to help explain the Tier 2 word. Eg. Ecstatic means happy.
- EXAMPLES in contexts other than the one provided in the story should be used.
- Then have children INTERACT with examples or have them provide their own examples.
Finally, have children say and repeat the word again to reinforce it's phonological representation.
Use the vocabulary wall to help children remember new words that they've learned. This will help students maintain the new words they've learned. Teachers can use this to help students "Bump up" their work by cueing them to visit the vocabulary wall.
If a word is too difficult for them to spell, they can take out the Tier 2 word, bring it to their desk to copy into their written work and return it when they're done.
This wall can also help students physically "file" the new word they learned into a category they already know. This could also be referred to as a WOW wall Other ways to maintain vocabulary - Tally mark on the back of the Tier 2 Words on the word wall whenever a student uses a word.
- Apply the words in a daily message or in their agenda.
-Put the new words on slips of paper and put them in a container. Have students pull out a word from the container and encourage them to use the word in a sentence before leaving for recess.
- Word of the day.
- Vocabulary Bingo.
- Act it out (i.e Student have to try and act out "mortified".
- Word webs Happy Joyous Glad Wow Words Wow words provide a visual for students to help with comprehension of the word meaning.
http://resources.sparklebox.me.uk/501-999/sb665.pdf Pinterest Party! Great website to search for teaching and classroom ideas. It keeps the ideas you find organized and easy to assess days, weeks or months later!
Let's check out some of my wonderful finds! Thank You! How do I introduce the EET to my students?
- Show the students the beads and discuss each one. Explain to the students that the beads help you describe things and that each bead means something different.
- Then model and describe something familiar for students to show them what the tool looks and sounds like.
- Next, choose another item for them to describe together as a class. Ideas can be written on a chart.
-Students might need some support to help fine tune their thoughts and how to use the tool functionally.
- The more the tool is used by the teacher during lessons, writing centers, etc, the easier it will be for students to understand how and when to use it.
- Some students will benefit from EET visual organizers and sentence starters which can be found in the EET manual. -To help with vocabulary acquistion: 1) present multiple exposures of the word being taught; 2) involve a beadth of information- not just repeat definitions, but present contexts, examples and if possible make the word tangeable; 3) engage active or deep processing by getting students to think about the words and interact with them.
- Focus should be on words that students are likely to meet often and that will be useful to them.
- Words introduced to students should remain part of their programme so that students continue to reinforce and enrich their understanding of them.
-Focusing on vocabulary in these ways can establish a way of thinking about words that leads to a lively and productive verbal environment in the classroom.
- Beck & Mckeown, 2004 Last thoughts on Vocabulary Expository Text Grammar Expository texts follow grammar rules that govern placement and order of information within the text.
Different expository grammars for different types of texts are needed.
Seven different text grammars exist for expository texts.
Ehren, 2007 Use of Text Structure Each structure should be taught along with how to identify them before expecting students to use this knowledge strategically.
–Explain how to use the text structure awareness strategically to assist with comprehension.
–Discuss the importance of the strategy.
–Model how, when and where to use the strategy and how to evaluate the effectiveness of it’s use by including “think alouds”.
–Provide guided and independent practice.
–Teach students how to transfer this skill.
–Review the structures often and prompt the strategic use of text analysis: e.g., “How might you improve your understanding of this reading by using the text structure?”.
Ehren, 2007 EXAMPLE- Description Most southern point of Canada. Very sunny. High multicultural population. Busiest border crossing in U.S/Canada. 4 seasons 250, 000 population Border City Windsor Enumeration gives a list of things that are related to a topic. Enumeration Details Details Details Example Example Example Topic Sequential/procedural text that tells what happened or how to do something. Sequence-Procedure Details Details Details Details Details Details Action 3 Action 2 Action 1 Topic EXAMPLE: Sequence-Procedure Apply mascara and do a second coat if needed. Apply eyeliner first. Add accent colours if you desire. Apply neutral tone first. Use make up sponge and dab, then rub into skin. Choose proper colour for skin tone. Mascara/
Eye liner Eye Shadow Foundation Applying make-up The comparison-contrast text shows how two or more things are the
same or different. Comparison-Contrast Details Details Details Details Different Alike Topic Cause/effect text grammar, gives reasons for why something happened. Cause-Effect Explanation Details Details Details Antecedent Antecedent Consequence Antecedent Topic In the problem/solution text grammar, the problem is followed by the steps
that led to the final solution. Problem-Solution Details Details Details Details Solution Solution Solution Problem Topic Argumentation/persuasion texts are a more advanced text structure that
takes on a position on some issue and justifies it. - + Support Support Support Support Support Argumentative-Persuasive Support Resolution Position 3 Position 2 Position 1 Thesis Statement Topic Writing frames provide an organization for summarizing information that adheres to a basic structure (i.e., compare/contrast).
This is particularly helpful for struggling writers.
Writing frames provide partially completed sentences or transition words that, over time, can be faded as students become more familiar with each frame.
- Nichols, 1980 Writing Frames Compare/contrast:
______________ are different from ________ in several ways. First, ____________________
________, while _________________________.
They are alike in that _______________ and ____________________________. So, it is evident that ______________________. Writing Frame Example Description tells what something is; it explains attributes of a topic. Description Details Details Details Attribute Attribute Attribute Topic Pre EET Post EET How do I incorporate "wh" questions? Word Web