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Jelsie James

on 13 February 2014

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The Circulatory System
By: Priyanka Gadkari, Jelsie James, and Miloni Shah
Period 2, 3
Specialized Cells
Major Organs Involved
Cell Communication
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Epithelial Tissue
Muscle Tissue
Connective Tissue
The main function of these organs is to transport blood and the substances it carries to and from all parts of the body.
Blood Vessels
Nervous Tissue
This type of tissue can be found in the arteries, veins, and capillaries of the body as protection. This tissue also covers the heart prevent it from rubbing against the lungs and damaging the heart's lobes.
Connective tissue is specifically for supporting, connecting, or separating other tissues and organs, and in the circulatory system, connective tissue makes up the walls of the capillaries, veins, and arteries in the body.
The heart is the only organ in the circulatory system but it is one of the most important organs in your entire body. It consists of four hollow chambers: two atria, and two ventricles below them. Their job is to push blood through the body. The blood flows into the heart through the atria and out through the ventricles. At the exit of each of the chambers there is a valve that ensures that the blood is flowing in the correct direction.
The lungs are part of the respiratory system and deliver oxygen to the blood so that it can be pumped through the arteries by the heart and delivered to the rest of the body.
The lungs are a pair of elastic, spongy organs used in breathing. They are located just behind, and to either side of, the heart. The right lung is larger than the left lung because it has three sections, whereas the left lung has only two.
When we breathe, the air travels to the lungs through a series of tubes and passages. The air enters the body through the nostrils or the mouth. It travels down the throat to the windpipe. Inside the chest cavity the windpipe divides into two branches, called the right and left bronchial tubes that enter the lungs. Each small tube ends in clusters of thin-walled air sacs, called alveoli. It is the alveoli that receive the oxygen and pass it on to the blood.
to the blood. The capillaries then connect to larger blood vessels, called veins, which bring the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
Through nervous tissue going from the heart to the brain, an individual's heart rate can be controlled. The nervous tissue also constantly tells the heart to beat, which keeps us alive.
brings oxygen and nutrients to tissues in the body, and carries away carbon-dioxide, lactic acid and other waste material.
It also transports hormones and other substances between organs and body tissues
composition of blood includes plasma and blood cells
The blood cells include the red blood cells, white blood cells and blood platelets
flow freely and efficiently from the body to everywhere else
Each blood vessel consists of a layered wall surrounding a central blood-containing space, or lumen.
3 types: arteries, veins, and capillaries
arteries - carry blood from heart
capillaries - carry blood close to tissue to exchange gases, nutrients and waste products
These are responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red Blood Cells pick up oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the body cells. After delivering the oxygen to the cells, it gathers up the carbon dioxide and transports it back to the lungs where it's removed from the body when we exhale.
Their flexible disc shape helps increase the surface area-to-volume ratio of these extremely small cells. This enables oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse across the red blood cell's plasma membrane more readily. Red blood cells contain enormous amounts of a protein called hemoglobin. This iron containing molecule binds oxygen as oxygen molecules enter blood vessels in the lungs. Unlike other cells of the body, mature red blood cells do not contain a nucleus, mitochondria, or ribosomes. The absence of these cell structures leaves room for the hundreds of millions of hemoglobin molecules found in red blood cells.
sends messages to all of the parts of the body including the heart, which is the major organ in the circulatory system through nerves
Without the brain, this system would not be able to function
The heart is considered a muscle because it expands and contracts. The tissue of the heart is also called cardiac tissue. Since the heart always beats, the muscle tissue in the heart makes sure the heart keeps beating and keeps pumping out blood
White Blood Cells help the body fight off germs. White Blood Cells attack and destroy germs when they enter the body. When you have an infection your body will produce more White Blood Cells to help fight an infection. Sometimes our White Blood Cells need a little help and the Doctor will prescribe an antibiotic to help our White Blood Cells fight a large scale infection.
Fish have a single systemic circuit for blood, where the heart pumps the blood to the gills to be re-oxygenated (gill circulation), after which the blood flows to the rest of the body and back to the heart.
Amphibians have a third circuit that brings oxygenated blood to the skin in order for gas exchange to occur; this is called pulmocutaneous circulation.
Warm-blooded animals require the more-efficient system of four chambers that has the oxygenated blood completely separated from the deoxygenated blood.
White blood cells are said to be larger than red blood cells. Although referred to as white blood cells, they are actually colorless. White blood cells have a large nucleus and a minimal cytoplasm layer.
Platelets are blood cells that help stop bleeding. When we cut ourselves we have broken a blood vessel and the blood leaks out. In order to plug up the holes where the blood is leaking from the platelets start to stick to the opening of the damaged blood vessels. As the platelets stick to the opening of the damaged vessel they attract more platelets, fibers, and other blood cells to help form a plug to seal the broken blood vessel. When the platelet plug is completely formed the wound stops bleeding. We call our platelet plugs scabs.
Work Cited Page
Platelets are actually not true cells but merely circulating fragments of cells. But even though platelets are merely cell fragments, they contain many structures that are critical to stop bleeding. They contain proteins on their surface that allow them to stick to breaks in the blood vessel wall and also to stick to each other. They contain granules that can secrete other proteins required for creating a firm plug to seal blood vessel breaks. Also platelets contain proteins similar to muscle proteins that allow them to change shape when they become sticky. When platelets are stimulated by a break in the blood vessel wall they change shape. They become round and extend long filaments. They may even look like an octopus, with long tentacles reaching out to make contact with the broken blood vessel wall or with other platelets. With these long filaments, platelets then form a plug to seal the broken blood vessel.
Approximately half of your blood is made of plasma. The plasma carries the blood cells and other components throughout the body. Plasma is made in the liver.
Blood plasma is the fluid part of the blood and the exact composition of it varies. Basic plasma contains a number of proteins, like albumin, antibodies and fibrinogen. Protein molecules play vital roles in processes such as osmotic balance, immunity and blood clotting. It also contains many inorganic salts, such as sodium, potassium chloride bicarbonate (hydrogencarbonate) and calcium. Plasma salts facilitate the conduction of nerve impulses across synapses, carrying carbon dioxide and playing a part in both buffering and blood clotting. Plasma also contains some important hormones, such as insulin and testosterone. In some invertebrate animals, the coloring pigments remain in the plasma, i.e., hemocyanin in prawns and hemoglobin in earthworms.
In order to fight infection, leukocytes, or white blood cells, need to move from the blood into the affected tissue. WBCs need to communicate with other cells so that they can go from the bloodstream into the affected area.
Epinefirin, renin, and angiotensin are hormones that help with cell-to-cell communication.
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