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Copy of Copy of Unique Tools and Strategies of PYP Assessment

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Agnes Kay Schmidt

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Unique Tools and Strategies of PYP Assessment

What is unique about PYP Assessment?

It assesses the IB Learner Profile
It assesses Prior Knowledge
It assesses the Central Idea
It Connects Student Action to Summative Assessment

Assessing the IB Learner Profile
Assessment of Prior Knowledge at the start of a unit of inquiry
Assessment of the Central Idea
Citations

Alexlancia. (2014, August 18th). Living the Learner Profile in Early Childhood. Retrieved March 11th, 2016 from http://alexlancia.com/category/ib-learner-profile/

Blackburn, B.R. ( 2014, April 29). 3 Quick Ways to Check Students´ Prior Knowledge. Retrieved March 8th, 2016, from http://www.middleweb.com/14986/3-ways-to-check-prior-knowledge/

Carnegie Mellon. (2016, March 11th). Performance Based Prior Knowledge Assessments. Retrieved March 11th, 2016 from https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/priorknowledge/performancebased.htm

Cornell University Center for Teaching Excellence CTE . (2015, Dic. 17). What Do Students Already Know? Retrieved March 8th, 2016 from http://www.cte.cornell.edu/teaching-ideas/assessing-student-learning/what-do-students-already-know.html

IBO. (March, 2006). IB Learner Profile Booklet. Cardiff, Wales: Peterson House.

IB0, (2009a), Making the PYP Happen , Cardiff, Wales: Peterson House. p. 26,27,44,45,48,50, 51, 53

IBO, (2009b), The Primary Years Programme A basis for practice. Cardiff, Wales: Peterson House. p.13, 15

IBO OCC, (2005a), How we take action? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/tsm/pyp_exhibition_2005/answer.cfm?school=3&question=7

IBO OCC, (2005b), How we take action? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/tsm/pyp_exhibition_2005/answer.cfm?school=1&question=7

IBO OCC, (2005c), How we take action? Retrieved March 15, 2016 from http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/tsm/pyp_exhibition_2005/answer.cfm?question=7&school=8

IBO OCC. (n.d.) Sample 2: Student Work identifying persuasive devices. Retrieved March 14, 2016
https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=p_0_pypxx_mon_1305_2_e&part=3&chapter=13

IBO OCC. (n.d.) Sample 7: Rubric addressing PYP essential elements. Retrieved March 14, 2016 from https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=p_0_pypxx_mon_1305_2_e&part=3&chapter=8

IBO OCC. (n.d.) Sample 12: Student Self Assessment of the learner profile. Retrieved March 14, 2016 from https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=p_0_pypxx_mon_1305_2_e&part=3&chapter=13

IBO OCC. (2011) Sample 17: Formative Assessment of Prior Knowledge. Retrieved March 14, 2016 from http://xmltwo.ibo.org/publications/PYP/p_0_pypxx_mon_1305_1/samples/sample17_en

IBO OCC. (2010). Sample 21: Student-developed rubric. Retrieved March 14, 2016 from https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=p_0_pypxx_mon_1305_2_e&part=3&chapter=22
Assessment: http://xmltwo.ibo.org/publications/PYP/p_0_pypxx_mon_1305_1/samples/sample21_en

IBO OCC. (2011) Sample 27: Summative assessment task. Retrieved March 14, 2016 from https://ibpublishing.ibo.org/server2/rest/app/tsm.xql?doc=p_0_pypxx_mon_1305_2_e&part=3&chapter=28

IBO OCC, (2013, April 6th). How do we assess that students have learnt the attribute of caring of the IB Profile? Retrieved March 8th, 2016, https://ibanswers.ibo.org/app/answers/detail/a_id/4495/~/how-do-we-assess-that-students-have-learnt-the-attribute-of-caring-of-ib

McCloughan, G. (2016, March 8) Finding out what students already know and can do. Retrieved March 8th, 2016 from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:4MwzQTTeiLUJ:www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/secondary/science/assets/docs/stage4_5docs/s45t_priorlrnst.doc+&cd=5&hl=es&ct=clnk&gl=de

Vidyatree Modern World College, (2016, March 8th). The IB Learner Profile Assessment. Retrieved March 8th, 2016 from http://www.vidyatreemodern.in/the-ib-learner-profile-assessment/


The Unique Tools and Strategies of PYP Assessment
Why?
Who?
How?
5 examples
Why?
Who?
How?
Over 20 examples
Why?
Who?
How?
3 examples
Connecting the students´ action to Summative Assessment
Why?
Who?
How?
3 examples
Schools are required to report on each student’s development according to the attributes of the learner profile. However, this feedback does not need to be included on a report card, and teachers do not need
to report on each attribute at the end of every reporting period. It is not appropriate to grade or score the attributes of the learner profile. (IBO, 2009a, p51.)
One of the best ways to assess the Learner Profile is ask students to assess themselves and give them the tools to do so. (IBO, 2009a. p. 50)
Thank you very much!

Muchisimas Gracias!

Vielen Dank!

Grazi Mille!

Xièxiè!
(Vidyatree Modern World College, 2016)
What?
Monitoring the IB learner profile
In PYP schools teachers are required, on behalf of all students, to assess and report on progress in the
development of the attributes of the learner profile. This is done by using the learner profile for self and
peer assessment, as the basis for teacher/student/parent conferences and through reporting to parents. (IBO, 2006, p. 3)
(Alexlancia, 2014)
(Alexlancia, 2014)
The teacher must be familiar with child development and learning, be responsive to the needs and interests
of the individual student, and be aware of the cultural and social contexts in which the student lives and
learns. The role of the teacher is to facilitate connections between the student’s prior knowledge and the knowledge available through new experiences. This is best done with the support of the parents, because it is the student’s environment—the home, the school and the community—that will shape the student’s cognitive experience. (IBO, 2009a, p.42)
Student learning is promoted through planning and refining the teaching and learning process to meet individual or group needs. Assessing the students’ prior knowledge and experience as well as monitoring their achievement during the teaching period will enable teachers to plan and refine their teaching accordingly. Teachers should bear in mind that a well-designed learning experience will provide data on students’ knowledge, skills and conceptual understanding, and is consequently a vehicle for summative or formative assessment. (IBO, 2009a, p.45)
Performance-Based Prior Knowledge Assessments

The most reliable way to assess students’ prior knowledge is to assign a task (e.g., quiz, paper) that gauges their relevant background knowledge.

These assessments are for diagnostic purposes only, and they should not be graded. They can help you gain an overview of students’ preparedness, identify areas of weakness, and adjust the pace of the course.

To create a performance-based prior knowledge assessment, you should begin by identifying the background knowledge and skills that students will need to succeed in your class. Your assessment can include tasks or questions that test students’ capabilities in these areas. (Carnegie Mellon, 2016)
Prior Knowledge Self-Assessments
Prior knowledge self-assessments ask students to reflect and comment on their level of knowledge and skill across a range of items. Questions can focus on knowledge, skills, or experiences that:
you assume students have acquired and are prerequisites to your course
you believe are valuable but not essential to the course
you plan to address in the course
The feedback from this assessment can help you calibrate your course appropriately or direct students to supplemental materials that can help them address weaknesses in their existing skills or knowledge.
The advantage of a self-assessment is that it is relatively easy to construct and score. The potential disadvantage of this method is that students may not be able to accurately assess their abilities. However, accuracy improves when the response options clearly differentiate both types and levels of knowledge. (Carnegie Mellon, 2016)
Why check students’ background knowledge?
Doing so is grounded in learning theories (Ausubel, 1968; Dewey, 1938) and is supported by research on the learning process (Tobias, 1994; Dochy, Segers & Buehl, 1999; Fisher, 2004).
Determining what students already know allows you to:
• Target specific knowledge gaps (Angelo & Cross, 1993).
• Become aware of the diversity of backgrounds in your classroom.
• Create a bridge between students’ previous knowledge and new material.
• Check for misconceptions that may hinder student learning of new material (Ambrose, et. al. 2010).

For students, understanding their starting point will make it easier for them to see what they have learned by the end of the course. They can better recall past learning and construct “bridges” between old and new knowledge (Angelo & Cross, 1993).
(Cornell University, Dec. 2015)
(Cornell University, 2015)
(McCloughan G., 2016)
(Blackburn, B., 2014)
(IBO, 2006, p.3)
Assessment as feedback
The prime objective of assessment in the PYP is to provide feedback on the learning process. Bruner states that students should receive feedback “not as a reward or punishment, but as information” (Bruner 1961:26). Teachers need to select assessment strategies and design assessment instruments to reflect clearly the
particular learning outcomes on which they intend to report. They need to employ a range of strategies for assessing student work that take into account the diverse, complicated and sophisticated ways that individual students use to understand their experiences. Additionally, the PYP stresses the importance of both student and teacher self-assessment and reflection. (IBO, 2009b, p.13)

All PYP schools are expected to develop assessment procedures and methods of reporting that reflect the
philosophy and objectives of the programme. (IBO, 2009a, p.44)


The PYP only gives guidelines for specific tools and strategies for assessment (seen in the pdf above). No specific examples of these tools and strategies are given except for the Rubric for the Culminating Project for the Exhibition in Grade 5-6. This is because each school must design their own unique tools and strategies for assessing students according to the standards/benchmarks set in their country of origen. Therefore in the following presentation we will show you some examples from the OCC (IBO online curriculum center), some creative examples that teachers have used and researchers have developed in the past.
(IBO, 2009a, p. 49)
Central idea is an absolutely essential part of the IB program. Teachers prepare and facilitate a unit of inquiry which focuses on a central idea connected to one of the six transdisciplinary themes in the PYP. In addition, the scope of the central idea is further defined by the lines of inquiry in the PYP planner (IBO, 2009a, p.12).
The aim of all assessments in PYP is to “provide feedback on the learning process” (IBO, 2009a, p.44). Although the teacher is the recorder of students’ inquiry and the primary assessor who employs an assortment of tools and strategies, students are also an integral part of the assessment process through providing peer-feedback to their classmates or engaging in self-reflection or self-assessment. (IBO, 2009a, p.44)
Teachers should think like assessors, not activity planners. There should be clearly defined criteria and rubric for the understanding and mastery of the central idea or learning objectives.

Throughout the lesson of inquiry, they should employ both summative as well as formative assessments that provide serve as evidence of students’ understanding, knowledge, skills, and attitudes defined by the PYP curriculum.

Teachers should also take into consideration of students’ various learning styles as well as other individual differences when planning lessons of inquiry.

All assessments should focus not only on the students’ understanding of the central idea, but also the extent – both breadth and depth – of their responses to the unit’s lines of inquiry.

Therefore, a range of assessment tools (rubric, exemplars, checklists, anecdotal records, continuums) and strategies (observations, performance assessments, process-focus assessments, selected responses, open-ended tasks) should be employed to assess the process as well as the product of students’ inquiry.

(IBO, 2009a, p.31, 44, 48)


Sample 7: Rubric addressing PYP essential elements

This rubric was developed as a summative assessment tool to collectively assess students’ understanding of the central idea. The criteria in the rubric were organized around the essential elements embedded in the unit. The data from this assessment informed further goal-setting in relation to the central idea and further literacy teaching and learning. (IBO OCC, n.d.)


Sample 17: Formative assessment task
Effective assessments establish students' prior knowledge.

In this unit of inquiry, a range of assessment strategies and tools were used to inform the different stages of the learning process and the progress made by students in all the PYP essential elements. Students were provided with opportunities to demonstrate their prior knowledge and current understanding. This information was used to inform the next stage of teaching and learning. Teachers observed students as they engaged with tasks and anecdotal records were kept. Students were asked to reflect on their learning regularly throughout the unit. For further information about this unit, including planners and other materials, please see “Unit of inquiry 5” in Sample units of inquiry (2011) on the online curriculum centre.
(IBO OCC, 2011)
(OCC, 2011)

Sample 2: Student work identifying persuasive devices
Effective assessments assess students’ prior knowledge of the central idea and lines of inquiry.

This learning experience was planned for the early stages of this unit of inquiry with the purpose of establishing the students’ prior knowledge about the central idea and lines of inquiry. This helped the teachers determine the next stage in the inquiry. The task also became of ongoing interest to some of the students and they drew on their experience from this engagement in completing the summative assessment task. (IBO OCC, n.d.)


Sample 12: Student self-assessment of the learner profile attributes
Effective assessments address the process of learning.

The PYP approach to assessment recognizes the importance of assessing the process of inquiry as well as the product(s) of inquiry, and aims to integrate and support both. This rubric was developed as a tool to assess the engagement of students during the exhibition. It is based on the attributes of the IB learner profile and the PYP attitudes. In addition, the criteria are written to reflect the understanding of the central idea and to encourage action in response to learning.
(IBO OCC, n.d.)


Sample 27: Summative assessment task
Effective assessments encourage students to be reflective and engage in self- and peer assessment.

This summative assessment task involved students in planning their own family symbols. The task gave students the opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of the central idea and to apply the transdisciplinary skills they had developed throughout the unit. Although the task was the same, students were encouraged to use a variety of learning styles, multiple intelligences and abilities to express their understanding. Students were involved in developing a rubric before the start of the task. Therefore, they knew and understood in advance the criteria for producing a quality product. The students participated in reflection, peer assessment and self-assessment at the end of the task. For further information about this unit, including planners and other materials, please see “Unit of inquiry 5” in Sample units of inquiry (2011) on the online curriculum centre. (IBO OCC, 2011)

The PYP exhibition has a number of key purposes:
• for students to engage in an in-depth, collaborative inquiry
• to provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate independence and responsibility for their own learning
• to provide students with an opportunity to explore multiple perspectives
• for students to synthesize and apply their learning of previous years and to reflect upon their journey through the PYP
• to provide an authentic process for assessing student understanding
• to demonstrate how students can take action as a result of their learning
• to unite the students, teachers, parents and other members of the school community in a collaborative experience that incorporates the essential elements of the PYP
• to celebrate the transition of learners from primary to middle/secondary education. (IBO, 2009a, p. 53)

Sample 21: Student-developed rubric
Effective assessments address understanding of the central idea.

The summative assessment for this unit of inquiry was a simulation task that allowed students to use the knowledge gained and experiences they had encountered during the unit. The task was open-ended, allowing for differentiation in recognition of each individual student’s interests and capabilities. The rubric, developed with the students earlier in the unit, identified the criteria that would be used for assessing how students demonstrated their understanding of the central idea and lines of inquiry. For further information about this unit, including planners and other materials, please see “Unit of inquiry 8” in Sample units of inquiry (2010) on the online curriculum centre.
(IBO OCC, 2010)

Assessment: (IBO OCC, 2010)

• Summative assessment aims to give teachers and students a clear insight into students’ understanding. Summative assessment is the culmination of the teaching and learning process, and gives the students opportunities to demonstrate what has been learned. It can assess several elements simultaneously: it informs and improves student learning and the teaching process; it measures understanding of the central idea, and prompts students towards action (IBO, 2009a, p.45).

• Summative assessment in terms of action In the PYP it is believed that education must extend beyond the intellectual to include not only socially responsible attitudes but also thoughtful and appropriate action. An explicit expectation of the PYP is that successful inquiry will lead to responsible action, initiated by the student as a result of the learning process…The PYP advocates a cycle of involvement that provides students with opportunities to engage in purposeful and beneficial actions. (IBO, 2009a, p.45)

• Action may require appropriate adult support in order to facilitate students’ efforts and to provide them with alternatives and choices. (IBO, 2009a, p. 26- 27)

• Parents, teachers, and students and administration must all be involved in action. Summative assessment on the part of the teacher must therefore provide both the students opportunities to demonstrate what has been learned, but also prompt students towards action. (IBO, 2009a, p. 26- 27)

The strategies of assessment used in the PYP cover a broad range of approaches from the more subjective and intuitive to the more objective and scientific. These are all part of the process of summative assessment leading to action.

• Assessment Tools:
- Observations, performance assessments, process-focused assessments, selected responses, open-ended tasks

• Methodology:
- Rubrics, exemplars, checklists, anecdotal records, continuums

- (IBO, 2009a, 48).


• Motivation for Assessment:

• The PYP assessment format is divided into three closely related areas: assessing, recording and reporting. The aim of assessment is to provide information to students, teacher, parents and administrators in order to aid in the learning process. The learning process in the PYP is always aimed at action a product of learning and inquiry.

• The IB does not administer or encourage the use of standardized achievement tests, it recognizes that there may be a local, state or national requirement concerning the use of such tests for many IB World Schools…When standardized achievement tests are an option, administrators and teachers should carefully consider:
- the relevance of the test to the cohort of students within the school
- the relationship between what is being tested and the school’s programme
- the impact of testing on teaching and learning
- the usability of the data produced.
(IBO, 2009a, 50).

• The final project for the PYP is an Exhibition that demonstrates the learning acquired by the student throughout the program and is a perfect opportunity for students to show their understanding of an authentic problem and their self-motivated action to help solve that problem.

http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/tsm/pyp_exhibition_2005/answer.cfm?school=1&question=7
http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/tsm/pyp_exhibition_2005/answer.cfm?school=3&question=7
http://occ.ibo.org/ibis/occ/tsm/pyp_exhibition_2005/answer.cfm?question=7&school=8
• The PYP stresses the importance of both student and teacher self-assessment and reflection (PYP A Basis for Practice, 15).
• Effective assessments according to the PYP provide feedback to students, teachers and parents, and accountability to administration.

• Students:
- share their learning and understanding with others
- demonstrate a range of knowledge, conceptual understanding and skills
- use a variety of learning styles, multiple intelligences and abilities to express their understanding
- know and understand in advance the criteria for producing a quality product or performance
- participate in reflection, self and peer-assessment
- base their learning on real-life experiences that can lead to further inquiries
- express different points of view and interpretations
- analyse their learning and understand what needs to be improved

• Teachers
- inform every stage of the teaching and learning process
- plan in response to student and teacher inquiries
- develop criteria for producing quality product or performance
- gather evidence from which sound conclusions can be drawn
- provide eviencet hat can be effectively reported and understood by the whole school community
- collaboratively review and reflect on student performance and progress
- take into account a variety of learning styles, multiple intelligences and abilities including different cultural contexts
- use scoring that is both analytical (separate scores for different aspects of the work) and holistic (single scores).

• Parents
- see evidence of student learning and development
- develop an understanding of the student’s progress
- provide opportunities to support and celebrate student learning.

- (IBO, 2009a, p. 26-27).

(IBO OCC, 2005a)
(IBO OCC, 2005b)
(IBO OCC, 2005c)
There are no specific formats preferred by the IB for reports, but the following points may prove useful in
formulating a reporting system.
1. The learner profile is addressed.
2. The transdisciplinary units and the subject-specific teaching are included.
3. All teachers involved in the student’s progress have an opportunity to comment.
4. All the essential elements of the programme are included.
Examples of schools’ report card templates can be found on the OCC. (IBO, 2009a, p. 53.
Evidence of learning in a portfolio should be from a range of experiences and curriculum areas. The portfoliois used to show the development of knowledge,
conceptual understanding
, transdisciplinary skills, attitudes and the
attributes of the learner profile
over a period of time. It may also be used to document
student action
. Portfolio entries should document both the process of learning and the product, including imagesand evidence of students in the process of constructing meaning. It can be used as a tool for assessment and reporting purposes for students, parents, teachers and administrators.
(IBO, 2009a, p. 50)
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