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Intro to Literature
Transcript of Intro to Literature
B. Short narrative song
C. Preserved and transmitted orally
D. Circulates among “illiterate” or “semi-literate” groups
E. Ballads focus on a single crucial episode or situation.
F. Begins at a point where the action is directed toward its catastrophe.
G. Events told in summarily, hurried fashion.
H. Little attention is paid to description of setting
I. Ballads are dramatic.
J. Events are not “described” but shown as they happen.
K. Intense and immediate, heightening climax
L. Dialogue is often used.
M. We must deduce who speaks by what is being said.
N. Ballads are impersonal. Narrator/singer/cantor rarely interferes
0. The “I” of the ballad is one that represents a party, community, or nation.
P. Story is the key.
Q. Language is plain and formulaic.
R. No novel turns of the phrase, no games.
S. A small stock of epithets and adjectives are used.
T. No character development or psychological motivation.
U. Heavy amount of repetition and parallelism, which may be a way of discharging
emotion, or to serve as a mnemonic technique.
V. Octosyllabic lines [Please note that in Spanish, when the line ends with an accent, you need to add one syllable].
Example Richard Cory WHENEVER Richard Cory went down town,
We people on the pavement looked at him:
He was a gentleman from sole to crown,
Clean favored, and imperially slim.
And he was always quietly arrayed, 5
And he was always human when he talked;
But still he fluttered pulses when he said,
“Good-morning,” and he glittered when he walked.
And he was rich,—yes, richer than a king,—
And admirably schooled in every grace: 10
In fine, we thought that he was everything
To make us wish that we were in his place.
So on we worked, and waited for the light,
And went without the meat, and cursed the bread;
And Richard Cory, one calm summer night, 15
Went home and put a bullet through his head. THANK YOU!