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ECY 300/600 Physical, Health and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities Chapter 14 Special Education in Contemporary Society

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Lisa Cranford

on 4 July 2015

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Transcript of ECY 300/600 Physical, Health and Related Low-Incidence Disabilities Chapter 14 Special Education in Contemporary Society

In this next video, think of how this facility could have helped Natalie early in her life
One of the most diverse categories of learners in special education because of the wide range of diseases and disorders in this category
In addition, there are several low-incidence disabilities that can also include physical or health disabilities, such as traumatic brain injury, deaf-blindness, and multiple disabilities. The term low-incidence generally refers to a disability the occurs infrequently
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Natalie has one of the most common physical disabilities (Cerebral Palsy) that occurs in school-aged children
Many students have various physical or health conditions, but only those with physical health disabilities that INTERFERE with their educational performance require special education
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According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 204 (PL108-446), students with physical impairments may qualify for special education services under three possible categories
orthopedic Impairments
multiple disabilities
traumatic brain injury

When students have two or more primary disabilities that cannot be accommodated by one special education program they may be classified as having multiple disabilities.
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in Beattle v. Board of Eduation (1919), the courts ruled that students with physical disabilities could be excluded from school because they were said to have a "depressing and nauseating effect" on other students (Ysseldyke & Algozzine, 1982)
Not every school-aged child with a physical or health impairment requires special education services, because the condition may not have a negative impact on the student's academic performance
The most common cause of brain injury during the perinatal period is asphyxia - a decrease in oxygen in the blood - several disabilities may occur such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive deficits (Rennie, Hagmann, & Robertson, 2007).
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C
- coloboma, a congenial condition resulting from an unusually shaped (teardrop) pupil and or other abnormalities of the eye contributing to difficulties with depth perception, visual acuity, and sensitivity to light
H
- heart defects, with may range from minor to life-threatening conditions
A
- artesia, complications of the respiratory system
R
- retarded physical growth; in some instances mental retardation is also present
G
- genital abnormalities - incomplete or underdeveloped genitals, more common in males
E
- ear defects, structural deformatiies in the outer, middle, or inner ear; hearing loss may range from mild to profound
outside causes such as infections, drugs, chemicals, or environmental agents, that can produce fetal abnormalities
Damage to the brain, spinal cord, or nerves
These impairments are not progressive meaning they do not worsen over time
Individuals with CP may have limited motor control and may not be able to control their limbs
Develops in the early stages of pregnancy causing the spinal cord and brain to develop atypically
Degenerative diseases
Affects muscles and motor development
Often fatal due to degenerative nature of the disease
The students will need increasingly more complex adaptations and assistive technology to permit continued participation in school activities
Muscular dystrophy (MD)
Group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive muscles weakness and degeneration (although intelligence remains intact). MD is terminal and students, families, and teachers need to deal with the inevitably of an early death.
chronic arthritic condition affecting the joints that occur before 16 years of age
Limbs may be partially or totally missing
Students with deaf-blindness may exhibit;
cognitive deficits (66%)
physical impairments (57%)
complex health needs (38%)
additional considerations
speech and language development
social behavioral skills
Functional Effects of a Disability
Atypical movements and motor abilities: Inability to control bodily movements
Sensory loss: lack of sensation, hearing and vision
Communication Impairments: Affects concentration and attendance
Health Factors: Student may experience pain or require medication or medical services
Experiential deficits: Limited background knowledge of concepts due to sensory deficits
Cognitive impairments: processing deficits: Delayed or impaired learning
Psychosocial and Environmental Factors
Motivation
Self-concept
Self-advocacy
Behavioral and Emotional Functioning
Social Environment and Social Competence
Physical and Technological Environments
Learning and Attitudinal Environments
Highly individualized and specialized instruction
Individuals with cerebral palsy have an increased incidence of other disorders, including epilepsy, visual impairments, and intellectual disabilities
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Most students who are deaf-blind use their residual vision or hearing to learn
The aim of treatment is to try to maintain functioning and help the person walk as long as possible
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Preparation for employment includes consideration of supported employment or job coaching. Unemployment rates for people with physical disabilities and health disabilities remains dismally high
Technology has made many jobs available for individuals with physical and health disabilities
Many adults with physical or health disabilities or related low incidence disabilities do not have access to preventative medical care which can contribute to medical and health issues. Many disabilities within this category may shorten the lives of the individuals and they will need to deal with this knowledge with their families
Students with moderate and severe cases of traumatic head injury typically require hospital stays and rehabilitation services before reentering school
typically, motor skills return first, and higher-level cognitive skills return last
improvement can be a long process, with the most dramatic gains occurring over the first year with
skills continuing to improve over about a five-year period
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First and foremost, a student will need a medical evaluation by a licensed physician that provides a diagnosis of the student's physical or health condition
quiz cue! most students with multiple disabilities are educated in separate classrooms
s
upported competitive employment or other employment models. In supported employment, the person with a disability works in the regular work setting and becomes a regular employee; however, training and continued support are necessary

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misunderstanding can result from cultural differences in how the disability is viewed and miscommunication between parents and school
Different families cope with illness and disability in diverse ways, and some are influenced by their particular culture
Families may need support as they learn to accept and support their child who has a physical or health disability or related low incidence disability.
they may experience stress juggling the demands of medical interventions, providing support, uncertainty about the future, and health concerns
Typical assessment methods may be ineffective due to the nature of the disability. Its important to consider reliable ways for the individual to respond to assessment measures
Barriers to attaining specialized technology can include funding issues, appropriate assessment, selection, training and and on-going technical support of the device
Some students will require functional curriculum while others will learn an academic curriculum. High expectations and achievement are essential
Chapter Fourteen in the 5th Edition
Be sure to read chapter 14
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