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PERIOD 2: 1607–1754

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Joe Jarquin

on 5 September 2014

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Transcript of PERIOD 2: 1607–1754

PERIOD 2: 1607–1754
Key Concept 2.1: Differences in imperial goals, cultures, and the North American environments that different empires confronted led Europeans to develop diverse patterns of colonization.
I. Seventeenth-century Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers embraced different social and economic goals, cultural assumptions, and folkways, resulting in varied models of colonization.

A. Spain sought to establish tight control over the process of colonization in the Western Hemisphere and to convert and/or exploit the native population
missions
encomienda
Columbian Exchange
Columbus
Cortes
Pizarro
Pueblo Revolt
Samuel de Champlain
fur trade
Huron
Quebec 1608
Father of New France
Europeans and American Indians maneuvered and fought for dominance, control, and security in North America, and distinctive colonial and native societies emerged.
C. Unlike their European competitors, the English eventually sought to establish colonies based on agriculture, sending relatively large numbers of men and women to acquire land and populate their settlements, while having relatively hostile relationships with American Indians.
B. French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few Europeans and used trade alliances and intermarriage with American Indians to acquire furs and other products for export to Europe.

Spanish- Santa Fe

French-Quebec

English- Jamestown

Roanoke
Jamestown
Learning Objectives (2.1.I)

WXT-2 Analyze how innovations in markets, transportation, and technology affected the economy and the different regions of North America from the colonial period through the end of the Civil War.

PEO-1 Explain how and why people moved within the Americas (before contact) and to and within the Americas (after contact and colonization).

WOR-1 Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the origins and patterns of development of North American societies in the colonial period.

ENV-4 Analyze how the search for economic resources affected social and political developments
from the colonial period through Reconstruction.
II. The British–American system of slavery developed out of the economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of the British-controlled regions of the New World.
A. Unlike Spanish, French, and Dutch colonies, which accepted intermarriage and cross-racial sexual unions with native peoples (and, in Spain’s case, with enslaved Africans), English colonies attracted both males and females who rarely intermarried with either native peoples or Africans, leading to the development of a rigid racial hierarchy.
B. The abundance of land, a shortage of indentured servants, the lack of an effective means to enslave native peoples, and the growing European demand for colonial goods led to the emergence of the Atlantic slave trade.
C. Reinforced by a strong belief in British racial and cultural superiority, the British system enslaved black people in perpetuity, altered African gender and kinship relationships in the colonies, and was one factor that led the British colonists into violent confrontations with native peoples.
D. Africans developed both overt and covert means to resist the dehumanizing aspects of slavery.
Learning Objectives (2.1.II)

WOR-1 Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the origins and patterns of development of North American societies in the colonial period.

WXT-4 Explain the development of labor systems such as slavery, indentured servitude, and free labor from the colonial period through the end of the 18th century.

ID-4 Explain how conceptions of group identity and autonomy emerged out of cultural interactions between colonizing groups, Africans, and American Indians in the colonial era.

POL-1 Analyze the factors behind competition, cooperation, and conflict among different societies and social groups in North America during the colonial period.

CUL-1 Compare the cultural values and attitudes of different European, African American, and native peoples in the colonial period and explain how contact affected intergroup relationships and conflicts.

Names
Music
Gullah
Subtle Resistance
Stono Rebellion
Slave Codes
Enclosure Movement
Primogeniture
Headright System
Indentured Servitude
Bacon's Rebellion
Middle Passage
brutality
rice cultivation
task system
gang system

The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano- History by Era
III. Along with other factors, environmental and geographical variations, including climate and natural resources, contributed to regional differences in what would become the British colonies.
A. The New England colonies, founded primarily by Puritans seeking to establish a community of like-minded religious believers, developed a close-knit, homogeneous society and — aided by favorable environmental conditions — a thriving mixed economy of agriculture and commerce.
B. The demographically, religiously, and ethnically diverse middle colonies supported a flourishing export economy based on cereal crops, while the Chesapeake colonies and North Carolina relied on the cultivation of tobacco, a labor-intensive product based on white indentured servants and African chattel
C. The colonies along the southernmost Atlantic coast and the British islands in the West Indies took advantage of long growing seasons by using slave labor to develop economies based on staple crops; in some cases, enslaved Africans constituted the majority of the population.

Learning Objectives (2.1.III)

WXT-2 Analyze how innovations in markets, transportation, and technology affected the economy and the different regions of North America from the colonial period through the end of the Civil War.

WXT-4 Explain the development of labor systems such as slavery, indentured servitude, and free labor from the colonial period through the end of the 18th century.

ENV-2 Explain how the natural environment contributed to the development of distinct regional group identities, institutions, and conflicts in the pre-contact period through the independence period.

ID-5 Analyze the role of economic, political, social, and ethnic factors on the regional identities in what would become the United States from the colonial period through the 19th century.

PEO-5 Explain how free and forced migration to and within different parts of North America caused regional development, cultural diversity and blending, and political and social conflicts through the 19th century.

CUL-4 Analyze how changing religious ideals, Enlightenment beliefs, and republican thought shaped the politics, culture, and society of the colonial era through the early Republic.

Puritans
Predestination
John Winthrop- City Upon A Hill
Anne Hutchinson, Roger Williams
Pilgrims
Mayflower Compact
Town Meetings
Mix of some agriculture, mostly commerce, fishing, shipbuilding
Middle
Quakers- William Penn- Pennsylvania
New York - Dutch "New Netherland"
produced much grain, "bread colonies", mixed economy

Southern
Virginia & Maryland- heavy tobacco dependence, led to plantations

South Carolina & Georgia- rice, heavy african populations, sometimes a majority

West Indies (Barbados) - sugar cane
Examine Chapter 2 of Zinn
Key Concept 2.2: European colonization efforts in North America stimulated intercultural contact and intensified conflict between the various groups of colonizers and native peoples.
I. Competition over resources between European rivals led to conflict within and between North American colonial possessions and American Indians.
A. Conflicts in Europe spread to North America, as French, Dutch, British, and Spanish colonies allied, traded with, and armed American Indian groups, leading to continuing political instability.
B. As European nations competed in North America, their colonies focused on gaining new sources of labor and on producing and acquiring commodities that were valued in Europe.

C. The goals and interests of European leaders at times diverged from those of colonial citizens, leading to growing mistrust on both sides of the Atlantic, as settlers, especially in the English colonies, expressed dissatisfaction over territorial settlements, frontier defense, and other issues.
Learning Objectives (2.2.I)

WXT-1 Explain how patterns of exchanging commodities, peoples, diseases, and ideas around the Atlantic World developed after European contact and shaped North American colonial-era societies.

PEO-1 Explain how and why people moved within the Americas (before contact) and to and within the Americas (after contact and colonization).

WOR-1 Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the origins and patterns of development of North American societies in the colonial period.

POL-1 Analyze the factors behind competition, cooperation, and conflict among different societies and social groups in North America during the colonial period.

ENV-1 Explain how the introduction of new plants, animals, and technologies altered the natural environment of North America and affected interactions among various groups in the colonial period.

Beaver Wars
The Molasses Act, 1733, a tax on West Indies molasses (rum being made from molasses).

Americans turned to smuggling

foreshadows more taxes and more troubles to come, later in the 1760s.
Spanish focus on gold and silver- Pueblo Revolt

French- fur trade- close relations with Natives

English focus on tobacco- indentured servitude- Bacons Rebellion-slavery
II. Clashes between European and American Indian social and economic values caused changes in both cultures.
A. Continuing contact with Europeans increased the flow of trade goods and diseases into and out of native communities, stimulating cultural and demographic changes.

population collapse and dispersal of Huron Confederacy

religious conversion among Wampanoag in New England

outbreak of King Philip’s War

Pequot War
B. Spanish colonizing efforts in North America, particularly after the Pueblo Revolt, saw an accommodation with some aspects of American Indian culture; by contrast, conflict with American Indians tended to reinforce English colonists’ worldviews on land and gender roles.
C. The presence of slavery and the impact of colonial wars stimulated the growth of ideas on race in this Atlantic system, leading to the emergence of racial stereotyping and the development of strict racial categories among British colonists, which contrasted with Spanish and French acceptance of racial gradations.

Casta system
mulatto

Learning Objectives (2.3.I)

WXT-1 Explain how patterns of exchanging commodities, peoples, diseases, and ideas around the Atlantic World developed after European contact and shaped North American colonial-era societies.

WXT-4 Explain the development of labor systems such as slavery, indentured servitude, and free labor from the colonial period through the end of the 18th century.

WOR-1 Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the origins and patterns of development of North American societies in the colonial period.

WOR-2 Explain how the exchange of ideas among different parts of the Atlantic World shaped belief systems and independence movements into the early 19th century.

CUL-4 Analyze how changing religious ideals, Enlightenment beliefs, and republican thought shaped the politics, culture, and society of the colonial era through the early Republic.

http://www.bellavistaranch.net/genealogy/casta.html
*know it ! Pueblo Revolt
impact- drove Spanish out, Spanish were more accommodating afterwords
Natives began to adopt land ownership, patriarchal lifestyles, and value of possessions over time
Key Concept 2.3: The increasing political, economic, and cultural exchanges within the “Atlantic World” had a profound impact on the development of colonial societies in North America
I. “Atlantic World” commercial, religious, philosophical, and political interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American native peoples stimulated economic growth, expanded social networks, and reshaped labor systems
A. The growth of an Atlantic economy throughout the 18th century created a shared labor market and a wide exchange of New World and European goods, as seen in the African slave trade and the shipment of products from the Americas.
B. Several factors promoted Anglicization in the British colonies: the growth of autonomous political communities based on English models, the development of commercial ties and legal structures, the emergence of a trans-Atlantic print culture, Protestant evangelism, religious toleration, and the spread of European Enlightenment ideas.
C. By supplying American Indian allies with deadlier weapons and alcohol, and by rewarding Indian military actions, Europeans helped increase the intensity and destructiveness of American Indian warfare.
Learning Objectives (2.3.I)

WXT-1 Explain how patterns of exchanging commodities, peoples, diseases, and ideas around the Atlantic World developed after European contact and shaped North American colonial-era societies.

WXT-4 Explain the development of labor systems such as slavery, indentured servitude, and free labor from the colonial period through the end of the 18th century.

WOR-1 Explain how imperial competition and the exchange of commodities across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean influenced the origins and patterns of development of North American societies in the colonial period.

WOR-2 Explain how the exchange of ideas among different parts of the Atlantic World shaped belief systems and independence movements into the early 19th century.

CUL-4 Analyze how changing religious ideals, Enlightenment beliefs, and republican thought shaped the politics, culture, and society of the colonial era through the early Republic.

John Locke
Act of Toleration
mercantilism
Spanish & Portugese trade of African Slaves
Middle Passage
triangular trade

Quakers in PA
Big idea questions
What is the american identity?

What was the impact of religion?
II. Britain’s desire to maintain a viable North American empire in the face of growing internal challenges and external competition inspired efforts to strengthen its imperial control, stimulating increasing resistance from colonists who had grown accustomed to a large measure of autonomy.
A. As regional distinctiveness among the British colonies diminished over time, they developed largely similar patterns of culture, laws, institutions, and governance within the context of the British imperial system.
B. Late 17th-century efforts to integrate Britain’s colonies into a coherent, hierarchical imperial structure and pursue mercantilist economic aims met with scant success due largely to varied forms of colonial resistance and conflicts with American Indian groups, and were followed by nearly a half-century of the British government’s relative indifference to colonial governance.
C. Resistance to imperial control in the British colonies drew on colonial experiences of self-government, evolving local ideas of liberty, the political thought of the Enlightenment,
greater religious independence and diversity
, and an ideology critical of perceived corruption in the imperial system.
Political?

Social ?

Economical?
Great Awakening 1730s and 1740s
America’s 1st big religious movement.
Jonathan Edwards was a leading preacher.
“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
George Whitefield
hell was “paved with the skulls of unbaptized children.”
these guys are “New Lights.” The “Old Lights” (Anglicans, and traditional Congregationalists and Presbyterians)
natural rights
life, liberty, & pursuit of happiness
if you believe in Jesus, no problem
direct democratic rule
Other Important Information for NE Colonies
Salem Witch Trials
all aspects of life were seen through religious eyes
"God and cod."
fishing was dominant in New England
Education was valued by New Englanders.

-schools were for the rich, and mostly for boys.

-1rst. Harvard College was established in 1636. motivation - train men for the ministry.

Notably, Virginia’s first college was William and Mary, est. 1693.
because dead men preach to them
Full transcript