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nervous system

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rondale ablos

on 30 January 2013

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Transcript of nervous system

The Nervous System Advanced Pathophysiology Report Nervous System Weighs 2 kg (4.5 lbs)
3% of the total body weight
One of the smallest, and yet most complex of the 11 body systems Structural Organization Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain
Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Cranial nerves
Spinal nerves
Enteric plexuses
Sensory receptors Functional Organization Sensory function
Integrative function
Motor function Functional Organization Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Enteric Nervous System Histology of
Nervous Tissue Types of Cells Neurons
Neuroglia / Glia Neurons 100 billion (10% of the total no. of nervous system cells)
Basic functional unit Structural Classification of Neurons Unipolar
Multipolar Functional Classification of Neurons Afferent neurons
Efferent neurons
Interneurons Neuroglia / Glia Smaller than neurons
5 to 25 times more numerous Neuroglia of the Central Nervous System Astrocytes
Microglia Neuroglia of the Peripheral Nervous System Schwann cells
Satellite cells Central Nervous System The Brain Central Nervous System: Brain

Meninges Major Divisions:
Brain Stem I. The Cerebrum:
a. Cerebral cortex ( Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Insula (Island of Riel))
b. Gyri
c. Sulci
d. Fissures
e. Basal nuclei
f. Limbic system II. The Cerebellum:
- below the posterior portion of the cerebrum. 3 general functions a.Acts with cerebral cortex to produce skilled movements by coordinating the activities of groups of muscles b.Controls skeletal muscles to maintain balance c. Controls posture; operates at subconscious level to smooth movements and make movements efficient and coordinated. III. The Diencephalon:
a. Thalamus
b. Hypothalamus
c. Epithalamus IV. The Brainstem:
a. Midbrain
b. Pons
c. Medulla Functions:
a.Control of the ANS
b.Production of hormones
c.Regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns
d.Regulation of eating and drinking
e.Control of body temperature
f.Regulation of circadian rhythms and states of consciousness Midbrain Contains nuclei of CN III and IV and some CN V nuclei Pons Contains nuclei of CN V, VI, VII and some CN VIII nuclei Medulla Contains nuclei of CN IX, X, XI and XII The Blood Brain Barrier Blood Brain Barrier
- separation of circulating blood from the brain
- consists of tight junctions
- glia limitans Disorders Affecting the Brain The Spinal Cord Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord

Lies within the spinal cavity; extends from the foramen magnum to the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra
Average length of 45 cm (18 in) in males; 42.5 cm (17 in) in females

Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord

Oval shaped cylinder, two bulges (cervical, lumbar)
Nerve roots (dorsal, ventral)
Gray and White Matter Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord

General Functions:
1. Provides conduction routes to and from the brain
*Tracts (Ascending and Descending) Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord

General Functions:
2. Serves as the reflex center for all spinal reflexes (gray matter) Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord

Protective Structures:
Vertebral column
Cerebrospinal fluid The Cerebrospinal Fluid Cerebrospinal Fluid

Clear, colorless liquid (80-150ml)
Glucose, CHON, Lactic Acid, Urea, Cations, Anions
CSF formation (choroid plexuses) Diseases Affecting the Spinal Cord
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