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safety factors on high risk industries
Transcript of safety factors on high risk industries
SAFETY FACTORS ON
HIGH RISK INDUSTRIES
Health & Safety
Reduction of risk to a
level that is as low as is
What are the Objectives?
To prevent occupational injuries
To prevent occupational illnesses
What if Health and Safety
is not managed
injury, illness or death to workers, customers or the public
damaged equipment, tools or facilities
loss of materials
NOT LIKE !!!
Establish within policy statements what the requirements are for the organization in terms of resources, defining management commitment and defining OSH targets
How is the organization structured, where are responsibilities and accountability defined, who reports to who and who is responsible for what.
Planning and Implementation
What legislation and standards apply to our organization, what OSH objectives are defined and how are these reviews, hazard prevention and the assessment and management of risk.
How is OSH performance measured and assessed, what are the processes for the reporting of accidents and incidents and for the investigation of accidents and what internal and external audit processes are in place to review the system.
How are preventative and corrective actions managed and what processes are in place to ensure the continual improvement process. There is a significant amount of detail within each of these sections and these should be examined in detail from the ILO-OSH Guidelines document.
Action for Improvement
What are RISK
Product of the consequence and probability of a hazardous event or phenomenon.
Basic Safety Procedures
in High Risk Activities & Industries
Tasks should be prioritized to ensure the most critical are examined first. When prioritizing task factors to be considered include:
injury frequency and severity;
potential for severe injuries;
new/modified tasks; and
infrequently performed tasks.
2. Breaking the Task into Steps
Identifying Potential Hazards
Recognizing a workplace hazard is the first step in overcoming it. But health and safety hazards are not always obvious.
4. Determining Preventative Measures
Control at the Source
Control Along the Path.
Control Along the Path.
4.3 Control at the Worker/Student.
USE OF INFORMATION
To control hazardous energy, you have to prevent it from being transmitted from its source to the equipment that it powers. You can accomplish that by doing the following:
Identifying energy sources.
Disconnect motors from the equipment.
Block the fluid flow in hydraulic,pneumatic, or steam systems with control valves or by capping or blanking the lines.
Vent pressurized fluids until internal pressure levels reach atmospheric levels.
Release or block tensioned springs.
Lock out the equipment’s energy-isolating device.
Isolate electrical circuits.
Disconnect equipment from energy sources.
Block equipment parts that could be moved by gravity.
Dissipating potential (stored) energy that can’t be isolated
Discharge capacitors by grounding them.
Ensure that all moving parts have stopped completely.
Tag out the energy-isolating device only if you can’t lock it out.
Understanding energy-control procedures
Conduct inspections of the procedures at least annually
Develop written procedures for controlling hazardous energy.
Train employees in the procedures.
What is confined space entry?
It can be any space of an enclosed nature where there is a risk of death or serious
injury from hazardous substances or dangerous conditions
Examples of Confined Spaces
What are the dangers
from confined spaces?
lack of oxygen
Fire and explosions
Hot conditions leading to a
in body temperature
fume or vapour.
Safe Systems of Work
Provision of Ventilation
Provision of rescue harness
Cleaning before entry
Provision of breathing apparatus
When things go wrong, people may be exposed to serious and
Effective arrangements for raising the alarm and carrying out rescue operations in
an emergency are essential.
Capabilities of Rescuers
Rescuers need to be properly trained people, sufficiently fit to carry out their task,
ready at hand, and capable of using any equipment provided for rescue, eg
breathing apparatus, lifelines and fire-fighting equipment.
Equipment required before entering a confined space
Confined spaces within machinery
The Confined Spaces Regulation 1997
The Provision and use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) and the
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 apply.
The Personal Protective Equipment Regulations 2002 and the Personal Protective
Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
Basic Electrical Safety
Fundamentals Of Electrical Hazards
Have You Ever Been Shocked ?
Current Flow In A Properly Grounded Circuit
Shock From Improper Grounded Tool
Basic Rules of Electrical Action
Myths and Misconceptions
Identify energy sources.
De-energize equipment by isolating or blocking the energy sources.
Dissipate potential (stored) energy that could affect the equipment.
Lock out the equipment’s energy-isolating device.
Tag out the energy-isolating device only if you can’t lock it out.
Identify equipment in your workplace that needs service or maintenance.
Determine the form of energy that powers the equipment, including potential
energy that may remain when the energy source is disconnected. Label the energy
sources so that workers will know what equipment is powered by each energy
De-energizing equipment means isolating it from its energy source
and controlling potential energy so that no energy can flow to the equipment.
The method you use to de-energize equipment depends on the form of energy
and the means available to control it. Safe practices for de-energizing
Stored energy must be released after equipment has been de-energized.
Capacitors, coiled springs, elevated machine members, rotating flywheels, and air, gas, steam, chemical, and water systems are sources of stored energy. If the energy could return to a hazardous level, make sure that it remains isolated from the equipment until all service work is finished. Safe practices for dissipating potential
Energy-isolating devices prevent energy from being transmitted from an
energy source to equipment. Energy-isolating devices are the primary means
for protecting those who service equipment.
Locking out is a procedure for securing an energyisolating device in an off, closed, or neutral
Tagging out is a procedure for placing a
warning tag or sign — a tagout device — on an
The intended use of the procedure.
Steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking, and securing equipment.
Steps for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout devices.
Equipment-testing requirements to verify the effectiveness of the energy control procedures.
All employees must be trained to know basic hazardous-energy concepts and
the purpose of the devices used to control hazardous energy. They should also
know what tasks might expose them to hazardous energy and how hazardous
energy can be controlled.
A safety harness is a form of protective equipment designed to protect a person, animal, or object from injury or damage. The harness is an attachment between a stationary and non-stationary object and is usually fabricated from rope, cable or webbing and locking hardware.
Why is Fall Protection Important?
Falls are among the most common causes of serious work related injuries and deaths. Employers must set up the work place to prevent employees from falling off of overhead platforms, elevated work stations or into holes in the floor and walls
What can be done
to reduce falls?
Employers must set up the work place to prevent employees from falling off of overhead platforms, elevated work stations or into holes in the floor and walls. OSHA requires that fall protection be provided at elevations of four feet in general industry workplaces, five feet in shipyards, six feet in the construction industry and eight feet in longshoring operations. In addition, OSHA requires that fall protection be provided when working over dangerous equipment and machinery, regardless of the fall distance.
To prevent employees from being injured from falls, employers must:
Guard every floor hole into which a worker can accidentally walk (using a railing and toe-board or a floor hole cover).
Provide a guard rail and toe-board around every elevated open
sided platform, floor or runway.
Regardless of height, if a worker can fall into or onto dangerous machines or equipment employers must provide guardrails and toe-boards to prevent workers from falling and getting injured.
Other means of fall protection that may be required on certain jobs include safety and harness and line, safety nets, stair railings and hand rails.
Barricade means an obstruction to deter the passage of persons or vehicles.
Use of barricades to control access to an identified hazard or hazardous area is the responsibility of all site personnel.
Barricades are used to provide visual barriers to contain equipment and materials and to prevent interaction with an identified hazard
Barricades shall be erected to separate the affected area and to prevent personnel from inadvertently been exposed to a hazard
Examples of when barricading shall be erected includes
Where there is a danger of injury from equipment or processes or for maintenance of switchboards & high voltage testing.
Where there is a danger of a person falling or being struck by falling objects,
Types of Barricade
Soft barricades are those that use an approved tape to prevent or restrict access
to an area.
A hard barricade is a physical structure such as scaffold tubes or water filled devices that prevent or restrict access to an area.
Caution Barricade Tape
Restricted Access Barricade Tape
Restricted Access Electrical
Work Barricade Tape
Restricted Access High Voltage Danger Barricade Tape
The purpose of a solid barricade is to provide a physical barrier capable of performing the same function as a permanent guardrail.
All barricades must be fitted with signage.
Removal of Barricades
Tapes and barricades shall be removed once they are no longer required (ie hazard controlled / work completed etc). This shall normally be done by the person who installed the tape or barricade.
Industrial Hygiene and Hazard Communication and Chemical Safety
Forms of chemical agent
Forms of biological agent
Forms of, classification of,
and health risks from hazardous substances
Classification of hazardous substances and their associated
ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH RISKS
Types of health rish
Routes of entry of hazardous
substances into the body
The Role of COSHH
skin contact with irritant substances, leading to dermatitis, etc.;
inhalation of respiratory sensitizers, triggering immune responses such as asthma;
badly designed workstations requiring awkward body postures or repetitive movements, resulting in upper limb disorders, repetitive strain injury and other musculoskeletal conditions;
noise levels which are too high, causing deafness and conditions such as tinnitus;
too much vibration, for example from hand-held tools leading to hand-arm vibration syndrome and circulatory problems;
exposure to ionising and non-ionising radiation including ultraviolet in the sun’s rays, causing burns, sickness and skin cancer;
infections ranging from minor sickness to life threatening conditions, caused by inhaling or being contaminated with microbiological organisms;
stress causing mental and physical disorders.
inhalation – breathing in the substance with normal
air intake. This is the main route of contaminants
into the body. These contaminants may be chemical
(e.g. solvents or welding fume) or biological (e.g.
bacteria or fungi) and become airborne by a variety
of modes, such as sweeping, spraying, grinding
and bagging. They enter the lungs where they have
access to the bloodstream and many other organs;
absorption through the skin – the substance
comes into contact with the skin and enters through
either the pores or a wound. Tetanus can enter
in this way as can toluene, benzene and various
ingestion – through the mouth and swallowed into
the stomach and the digestive system. This is not
a significant route of entry to the body. The most
common occurrences are due to airborne dust or
poor personal hygiene (not washing hands before
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
(COSHH) 1988 were the most comprehensive and
significant piece of health and safety legislation to be
introduced since the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
The COSHH Regulations offer a framework for
employers to build a management system to assess
health risks and to implement and monitor effective controls.
Adherence to these Regulations will provide the following
benefits to the employer and employee:
improved productivity due to lower levels of ill health and more effective use of materials;
improved employee morale;
lower numbers of civil court claims;
better understanding of health and safety legal requirements.
Some aspects of health exposure will need input from
specialist or professional advisers, such as occupational
health hygienists, nurses and doctors. However, considerable
progress can be made by taking straightforward
measures such as:
consulting the workforce on the design of workplaces;
talking to manufacturers and suppliers of substances and work equipment about minimizing exposure;
enclosing machinery to cut down dust, fumes and noise;
researching the use of less hazardous substances;
ensuring that employees are given appropriate information and are trained in the safe handling of all the substances and materials to which they may be exposed.
Assessing exposure and health
Sources of information
Survey techniques for health risks
Product labels include details of the hazards associated
with the substances contained in the product and
any precautions recommended. They may also bear one
or more of the CHIP hazard classification symbols.
Material safety data sheets are another very useful
source of information for hazard identification and associated
advice. Manufacturers of hazardous substances
are obliged to supply such sheets to users, giving details
of the name, chemical composition and properties of the
substance. Information on the nature of the health hazards
and any relevant exposure standard (WEL) should
also be given together with recommended exposure
control measures and personal protective equipment.
1. Stain tube detectors use direct reading glass indicator tubes filled with chemical crystals which change color when a particular hazardous substance passes through them.
2. Passive sampling is measured over a full working
period by the worker wearing a badge containing
absorbent material. The material will absorb the
contaminant gas and, at the end of the measuring
period, the sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.
The advantages of this method over the stain
tube are that there is less possibility of instrument
errors and it gives a TWA reading.
3. Sampling pumps and heads can be used to measure
gases and dusts. The worker, whose breathing
zone is being monitored, wears a collection head as
a badge and a battery-operated pump on his back
at waist level.
4. Direct reading instruments are available in the
form of sophisticated analysers which can only be
used by trained and experienced operatives. Infrared
gas analysers are the most common but other
types of analysers are also available. They are very
accurate and give continuous or TWA readings.
The principles of good practice for
the control of exposure to substances
hazardous to health
Preventative control measures
Hierarchy of control measures
Supervisory or people controls
Personal protective equipment
Health surveillance and personal
Health risks and controls associated
Health risks and controls associated
with other specific agents
Duty to manage asbestos
Asbestos appears in three main forms – crocidolite
(blue), amosite (brown) and chrysotile (white). The blue
and brown asbestos are considered to be the most dangerous
and may be found in older buildings where they
were used as heat insulators around boilers and hot
water pipes and as fire protection of structure. White
asbestos has been used in asbestos cement products
and brake linings. It is difficult to identify an asbestos
product by its colour alone – laboratory identification is
usually required. Many asbestos-containing materials
(ACMs) are difficult to distinguish from other materials.
It is easy to drill or cut ACMs unwittingly and release
large quantities of airborne fibres that could cause longterm
health problems to the operator. Asbestos produces
a fine fibrous dust of respirable dust size which
can become lodged in the lungs. The fibres can be very
sharp and hard causing damage to the lining of the lungs
over a period of many years. This can lead to one of the
following diseases: â•…
n asbestosis or fibrosis (scarring) of the lungs;
n lung cancer;
n mesothelioma – cancer of the lining of the lung or, in
rarer cases, the abdominal cavity.
The Control of Asbestos Regulations requires those in
control of premises and the duty holders to:
take reasonable steps to determine the location and
condition of materials likely to contain asbestos;
presume materials contain asbestos unless there is
strong evidence that they do not;
make and keep an up-to-date record of the location
and condition of the ACMs or presumed ACMs in
assess the risk of the likelihood of anyone being
exposed to fibres from these materials;
prepare a plan setting out how the risks from the
materials are to be managed;
take the necessary steps to put the plan into action;
review and monitor the plan periodically;
provide such information and asbestos awareness
training to anyone who is liable to work on these
materials or otherwise disturb them.
In addition, the Regulations include the following main
1. a single tighter control limit for all types of asbestos.
2. specific training requirements for those working
3. a clear hierarchy of controls to be used to reduce
Cement dust and wet cement
Leptospirosis and Weil’s disease
Other waste issues
Safe handling and storage of waste
The collection and removal of waste from a workplace is
normally accomplished using a skip. The skip should be
located on firm, level ground away from the main. Commercial waste collection instruction work, particularly excavation work. This will
allow clear access to the skip for filling and removal from site.
Some form of training may be required to ensure that
employees segregate hazardous and non-hazardous
wastes on site and fully understand the risks and necessary
safety precautions which must be taken. Personal
protective equipment, including overalls, gloves and eye
protection, must be provided and used.
A hierarchy for the management of waste streams has
been recommended by the Environment Agency. â•…
1. Prevention – by changing the process so that the
waste is not produced (e.g. substitution of a particular
2. Reduction – by improving the efficiency of the process
(e.g. better machine maintenance).
3. Reuse – by recycling the waste back into the process
(e.g. using reground waste plastic products as
a feed for new products).
4. Recovery – by releasing energy through the combustion,
recycling or composting of waste (e.g.
the incineration of combustible waste to heat a
5. Responsible disposal – by disposal in accordance
with regulatory requirements.
In 1998, land disposal accounted for approximately 58%
of waste disposal, 26% was recycled and the remainder
was incinerated with some of the energy recovered as
heat. The Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging
Waste) Regulations 1997 placed legal obligations
on employers to reduce their packaging waste by either
recycling or recovery as energy (normally as heat from
an incinerator attached to a district heating system).
A series of targets have been stipulated which will reduce
the amount of waste progressively over the years. These
Regulations are enforced by the Environment Agency
which has powers of prosecution in the event of noncompliance. The UK recycled almost two-thirds of all
packaging produced in 2008.
The Landfill (England and Wales) Regulations 2002
are part of the Government’s drive to encourage recycling
and reduce the amount of rubbish sent to landfill
sites, and this means that companies now have to either
recycle or treat their waste before it is taken to landfill.
The new rules have already come into force in Scotland.
The main changes are that liquid wastes are now
banned from landfill and other waste must be treated
before it can be passed into landfill. Businesses now
need to demonstrate that their waste has been treated
in either a physical, thermal, chemical or biological
process. One major environmental problem is that of
contaminated land. Contaminated land is defined in
the Environmental Protection Act and is produced by
leakage, accidental spillage and uncontrolled waste
and Fire Codes
& Fire Code
A - IM LOW
S - QUEEZE THE
COMMON FIRE HAZARDS
P - ULL THE PIN
S - WEEP
Presidential Decree No. 1185
August 26, 1977
WHEREAS, there is an urgent need for an agency primarily responsible for the implementation and coordination of the activities of all sectors of society on fire safety, prevention and suppression;
WHEREAS, fire prevention and suppression require the adoption of uniform fire safety standards, the incorporation of fire safety construction and provision of protective and safety devices in buildings and structures;
WHEREAS, in order to effectively implement all efforts to minimize the occurrence of fires and their destructive effects, full financial, equipment and personnel support by the government and the private sector is necessary;
WHEREAS, in order to effect a meaningful reduction of the alarming fire losses, there is a need to develop national consciousness and involvement of all persons in the prevention and suppression of fires;
WHEREAS, death and injury to persons and loss and damage to property by fire have reached alarming proportion that the economic and social gains of the society are being continually undermined;
Tapes and barricades shall be removed once they are no longer required (ie
hazard controlled / work completed etc). This shall normally be done by the
person who installed the tape or barricade.
Where there is equipment, traffic hazards and high risk areas
Free Standing Barricade
Road traffic control barrier i.e water filled plastic barricade
Construction Site Barricade i.e mesh or hoarding fence panels