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States of MATTER

States of Matter (8th grade science)
by

Astrid Hufnagel

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of States of MATTER

Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
There are 5 states of matter
1. Bose Einstein Condensate
2. Solid
3. Liquid
4. Gas
5. Plasma
Solid: A fixed, closely packed arrangement of molecules causes a solid
to have a definite shape and a definite volume.
There are two basic classes of solids:
1. CRYSTALLINE: The molecules form a regular, repeating pattern, that creates crystals.
Salt
Sugar
Snow
2. AMORPHOUS: The molecules are not arranged in a regular pattern.
These solids will not melt at a specific temperature like crystalline solids do, but become softer or change into other substances.
Liquid: A liquid does have a definite volume, but its molecules are more spread out than in a solid and have more energy, so it does not have a definite shape.
For this reason it is called a fluid, "a substance that flows." Liquids have the properties of viscosity and surface tension.
Gas: The molecules within a gas are free to move and have even more energy than liquids, so they have neither a definite shape nor volume.
Plasma is by far the most common form of matter. Plasma in the stars and in the tenuous space between them makes up over 99% of the visible universe and perhaps most of that which is not visible.

On earth we live upon an island of "ordinary" matter. The different states of matter generally found on earth are solid, liquid, and gas. We have learned to work, play, and rest using these familiar states of matter. Sir William Crookes, an English physicist, identified a fourth state of matter, now called plasma, in 1879.
Bose-Einstein Basics
In 1995, two scientists, Cornell and Weiman, finally created this new state of matter. Two other scientists, Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein, had predicted it in the 1920. They didn't have the equipment and facilities to make it happen in the 20s. Now we do. If plasmas are super hot and super excited atoms, the atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are total opposites. They are super-unexcited and super-cold atoms.
You need to know the following Changing States:
Melting
Freezing
Vaporization (Evaporization or Boiling)
Condensation
Sublimation
Deposition
Melting: The change in state from a
solid to a liquid is called melting. In
pure substances this occurs at a specific
temperature called the melting point. At
this point, the molecules of a solid substance
are vibrating so fast that they break free of
their fixed positions.
Vaporization: This change of state from a liquid to a gas occurs when the molecules gain enough
heat energy to form a gas. If it only takes place at the surface of a liquid it is called evaporation. When it occurs at the surface and below the surface it is called boiling. The boiling point is another physical property of substances.
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