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WH Unit 4-Exploration

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Joyce Pevler

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of WH Unit 4-Exploration

Motives for European Exploration
1. CRUSADES: By-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.
2. RENAISSANCE: Curiosity about other lands and peoples.
3. REFORMATION: Refugees & missionaries.
4. Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.
5. Technological advances.
6. 3Gs: Gold, God, Glory
Map of Known World
Better Maps:
Cartographers = Map Makers
Created accurate maps & sea charts
Magnetic Compass:
Pointed to magnetic north
Made it easier to determine direction
Invented by the Chinese
Used to determine latitude at sea.
Measured altitude of celestial bodies
Developed by Ancient Greeks,
perfected by Arabs
Caravel: Sturdier boat
Developed by Portuguese
Combined square sails of Europeans with triangular sails of Arabs.
Made it easier to sail into the wind
Gunpowder from Chinese
Sturdier canons added to ships
Provided protection & allowed domination of native peoples
Portugal & Spain
Sought to break Italian monopoly on trade with Asia
Prince Henry, the Navigator
School for Navigation, 1419

Ushered in new era of
European exploration
Established at Sagres
Brought in the best of sailing
Bartholomew Dias
1488: Rounded the southern tip of Africa
Called Cape of Good Hope -- opened the sea route to Asia
(1394 - 1460)
Vasco da Gama

Created huge demand for Indian goods in Europe
1498: Built onto Dias' route
First to travel from Portugal, around Africa to India, and back to Portugal
Amerigo Vespucci

Perhaps the 1st European to realize that he had discovered new continent

America named after him
Explored Brazil
In less than 50 years the Portuguese built a trading empire with military or merchant outposts rimming the southern seas.

**For most of the 1500s, Portugal controlled the spice trade between Europe and Asia.**
Europeans take tools developed by Greeks, Arabs, and Chinese to conquer the world.
Christopher Columbus
Financed by Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain


1492: Reached Bahamas
Looking for shorter route to Asia
Four Expeditions
Charted most of the major islands in Caribbean
Ushered in an era of European exploration & domination of New World
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
1513: Discovered the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama
Ferdinand Magellan
First to circumnavigate the globe

Charted the size of the Pacific Ocean
The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
Agreement between Portugal and Spain

Divided World into two areas
The Pope’s Line of Demarcation
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Impact of European Expansion
1. Native populations ravaged by disease.

2. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.

3. New products introduced across the continents [“Columbian Exchange”].

4. Deepened colonial rivalries.
Exploration Assessment
1. Who is America named after?

2. What year did Columbus reach the Bahamas?
Full transcript