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Churchill, Manitoba, Canada Climate Change
Transcript of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada Climate Change
What is Climate Change?
By: Mya Davidson, Adrian Pracin and Cheyenne Fernley
Possible increased flood events
It is a change in global or regional climate patterns
The town of Churchill, Manitoba is found in Northeastern Manitoba. Located on the shore of the Hudson Bay , Churchill has an elevation of thirteen meters. Churchill provides an array of plants and animals, as well as supporting a variety of human cultures.
The region we have focused on is the province of Manitoba in Canada. The province experiences a continental climate with cold winters caused by arctic air masses and hot summers caused by southern air masses. The province has a variety of ecological zones ranging from prairie, boreal forest, and to tundra in the far north.
Factors that affect the climate of Churchill:
Nearness to water
Churchill has a latitude of 58N, this means that it is located well into the northern hemisphere, causing it to receive a high reflective power, meaning rays from the sun are reflected by the snow and ice. This makes Churchill have low temperatures all year around.
Emerald Ash Borrer
Example of The Effects of Drought
Effects of Climate Change on
the Logging Industry
Boreal forests are set to shrink and temperate forests and prairie are set to expand in the former range
Forests may shrink because of expanding invasive species, such as the emerald ash borer
Forests may also shrink due to increased risk of droughts, floods, and forest fires as a result of climate change
Therefore the logging industry will decrease or suffer a loss in revenue
Effects on Agriculture
A longer growing season is predicted for the majority of the province, this is the time period where crops grow without a frost risk
Crops such as corn and soybeans are predicted to grow further north
Droughts are also predicted to occur more often, resulting in loss of crops and increased need for irrigation systems
Livestock may also be affected, suffering from heat stress, resulting from increased temperatures
Effects on Tourism
Recreational fishing may be affected by increased flooding and the results of increased agricultural runoff: algal blooms and water contamination
Parks and scenic destinations may close due to increased risks of severe weather patterns such as tornadoes and hail storms, and increased risk of wild fires
Many areas of the province could become flooded and the Red River could potentially flood major tourist destinations such as the capitol of Winnipeg, where many cultural institutions lie
Red River Flooding in a Neighborhood
Manitoba's Natural Scenery
Since Churchill is located near the coast of the Hudson Bay, it receives a moderating effect from the water in the summer, due to the fact that water heats up and cools down more slowly than land.
During the winter however, Churchill receives temperatures characteristic of a continental climate. This is because during the winter months, the bay freezes over, so it doesn't have the same moderating effect that it does in the summer.
During the summer, Churchill receives Maritime Arctic air masses that brings cool, but not freezing temperatures from the Hudson Bay.
During the winter months, when the bay is frozen, Continental Arctic air masses form over the land and bay, bringing temperatures below -20C.
Effects on Churchill and the North of Manitoba
Churchill will be affected by warmer temperatures, that will melt the surrounding permafrost, thus causing railway infrastructure to degrade and shipping prices to increase
The warmer temperatures will also threaten wildlife in the region such as polar bears and many migrating bird species, this could in turn harm tourist-based wildlife
The increased sea level may also flood some northern communities along Hudson's Bay as well as Churchill itself
Also the neighboring historic site of Prince of Wales Fort may become structurally unstable due to melting permafrost
Polar Bear Tourism
American Golden Plover
Prince Of Wales Fort
Effects on Society
Overall society could be impacted by an increase in extreme weather related events
Flooding could occur threatening major population centers such as Winnipeg, causing water born illnesses, increase in disease carrying insects, and ruin shelters and infrastructure
Increased temperatures could result in heat related illnesses and become amplified in "urban heat islands" such as Winnipeg, causing extreme power demand that could result in outages
Tornadoes could potentially increase in frequency and severity causing injury and death to occur
Red River Flooding
Population seeking relief from extreme heat
Nearness to water
Because Churchill is located so far north, it receives a significant amount of its precipitation in the form of snow.
Churchill receives air masses that carry moisture from forming over the bay. During the winter the air holds little precipitation because it forms over the frozen bay and land. This is the reason that most of Churchill's annual precipitation falls in the summer.
Most of the air masses that affect the area form over the Hudson Bay, meaning they hold a significant amount of moisture during the summer and are somewhat warmer than those that form over the frozen bay and bring almost no precipitation and extremely low temperatures during the winter months.
The daily average low (blue) and high (red) temperature with percentile bands (inner band from 25th to 75th percentile, outer band from 10th to 90th percentile).
The warm season lasts from June 9 to September 14 with an average daily high temperature above 10°C. The hottest day of the year is July 27, with an average high of 18°C and low of 9°C.
The cold season lasts from November 30 to March 18 with an average daily high temperature below -14°C. The coldest day of the year is January 22, with an average low of -30°C and high of -22°C
The following data and climate graph represents the average temperature and precipitation for Churchill, Manitoba over the last 25 years.
Southern parts of the province, located just north of Tornado Alley, experience tornadoes each year, with 15 confirmed touchdowns in 2006.
In 2007, on June 22 and June 23, numerous tornadoes touched down, including an F5 Tornado that devastated parts of Elie (the strongest officially recorded tornado in Canada).
Lakes are drying at an unknown rate
Desiccation of shallow lakes located in low-relief, open-tundra catchments has occurred recently in response to lower-than-average snow melt runoff in recent years. This appears to be unknown over the past 200 years
The average yearly temperature in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada is at -7.1 degrees Celsius