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vertebrates

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Angie Dobberfuhl

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of vertebrates

Phylum Chordata Phylum
Chordata pharengeal gill slits dorsal hollow nerve chord post-anal tail notochord ancestral deuterostome Notochord Brain Head Vertebral column Jaws and mineralized skeleton Lungs or lung derivatives Lobed fins Legs Amniotic egg Milk Echinodermata Urochordata Cephalochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinistia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia Phylum Echinodermata Cephalochordata Urochordata Myxini Petromyzontida Chondrichthyes Actinopterygii Actinstia Dipnoi Amphibia Reptilia Mammalia Bilateral symmetry
Deuterostomata
Notochord
Flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Pharyngeal gill slits
Invertebrates are filter feeding; Gas exchange structures; head and neck
Muscular post anal tail Phylum Chordata characteristics Tunicates or Sea Squirts
Resemble chordates during larval stages
Sessile adults change and lose most of the chordate characteristics Subphylum Urochordata 2 cm Tail Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Notochord Anus Segmental muscles Atriopore Digestive tract Atrium Pharyngeal slits Mouth Tentacle Lancets (blade-like shape)

Segmented muscle blocks somites

Eat via tentacles and filter through pharyngeal slits

Rare in many parts of the world…common in Tampa Subphylum cephalochordata 1) What are the major characteristics of chordates?
2) What is an example of a urochordate?
3) Do chordates exhibit all chordate characteristics in all stages of life? Why?
4) What is an example of a cephalochordate? Questions to consider Part of a group known as craniates chordates with a head (and brain and sense organs etc)

Hagfish have a cartilagenous skeleton (including a skull), no jaws no vertebrae

Are all marine

Feed on worms and dead fish

Secrete a slime to repel predators (liters in a minute) Phylum Mixini Lampreys marine and freshwater

Most are parasites sucking on to the side of living fish rasp away the skin and suck the blood

Many migrate as adults from fresh water to salt water or vice versa (catadromous or anadromous)

Cartilagenous skeleton without jaws

Notochord has cartilaginous pipe around it Class cephalaspidomorphi Sharks (Galea), rays (Squalea), chimaeras (Holocephali), etc

Cartilagenous skeletons with some calcium
Skin is covered with tooth-like scales (dermal denticles)

Sharks use oil stored in liver to increase buoyancy but are still negatively buoyant
Use urea to regulate salt concentrations in blood also aids in buoyancy

Some are oviparous (lay eggs) others are oviviviparous (incubate eggs inside the oviduct others are viviparous (nourish embryos in a uterus)

Rays have evolved to live on the ocean floor
Flattened; barbed spine on tail; gills for sucking in water Class Chondrichthyes One hypothesis about
Jaws may have arisen from rods used in filter feeding and modified into prey gripping structures
Added 3 Hox genes clusters 4 are common to gnathostomes
Enlarged brain with enhanced vision, smell and lateral line (in aquatic lineages)
Mineralization of endoskeleton Gnathostomes 5) What is the difference between a hagfish and a lamprey? How are they similar?
6) What type of taxon are lampreys considered?
7) What type(s) of genes seem to be related to the development of jaws? Why?
8) What are some specialized characteristics of chondrichthyes?
9) What are some shared characteristics with other vertebrates? Questions to consider Ray-finned fishes

Fishes with fins supported by flexible rays

Very diverse

Fresh and saltwater

Most familiar fish belong to this class

Usually have swim bladders for buoyancy

Bony skeletons Class Actinopterygii http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Australian-Lungfish.jpg Lobe-finned fishes

Thick fleshy muscular pelvic and pectoral fins

Thought to be part of the lineage that led to terrestrial tetrapods

This class includes the coelacanth thought to be extinct but rediscovered in 1938 in the Comoros islands
(Sarcopterygii) Class Actinistia 10) What are the most common and diverse group of osteichthyes? What are some specialized characteristics?
11) What is the importance of the swim bladder in the evolution of terrestrial animals? Aquatic animals?
12) What are some characteristics of Dipnoi fish that are thought to make them closely related to tetrapods? Questions to consider “two lives”

Salamanders (Urodela) “tailed ones”
Most live on land; some are aquatic

frogs (Anura) “without tail”
More specialized for land
Hopping; tongue for catching insects

caecilians (Apoda) “without feet”
Leggless; nearly blind
Tropical; often burrow in soil; some aquatic

Common in damp areas

Some have no lungs and gas exchange is through skin

Fertilization is external Class Amphibia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteidae Necturus maculosus Class Amphibia Many (not all) are metamorphic the larval form looks very different from the adult (tadpole vs frog)

Paedomorphosis retention of juvenile characteristics while sexually mature is common in some salamanders

25 years a sharp decrease in amphibian populations
Habitat degredation
fungal (chytrid) pathogen
acid precipitation 13) What are some derived characteristics of amphibians?
14) What are some shared characteristics of amphibians and dipnoi fishes?
15) What are some of the characteristics that made it possible for amphibians to move on to land? Questions to consider Amniote membranes
Allantois disposal and storage of wastes
Amnion cushion for embryo
Chorion gas exhange for embryo and through shell
Yolk sac nourishment Amniotes Crocodilia (crocodiles, caimans and alligators): 23 species
Sphenodontia (tuataras from New Zealand): 2 species
Squamata (lizards, snakes and amphisbaenids ("worm-lizards")): approximately 7,600 species
Testudines (turtles): approximately 300 species
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reptilia “To creep”

Keratin scales for waterproof barrier
Scutes in crocodilians some permeability

almost no gas exchange through skin

internal fertilization

eggs laid on land or are held within the mother (viviparous) membranes form a placenta and allow embryo to get nourishment from mother

Ectothermic must absorb most of body heat from surroundings Class Reptilia All is adapted to flight and lightness
No bladder; one ovary; gonads small; toothless; skeleton light and space-filled
Wings and feathers
Endothermic use metabolic heat to create constant high body temperature
Acute vision
Complex behavior
Archaeopteryx first birds found in the fossil record Aves 16) What is the relationship between reptiles and aves?
17) Do the class aves form a monophyletic group? Why?
18) What characteristic made it possible for reptiles to become truly terrestrial?
19) What are some derived characteristics of aves? What is the primary reason for evolution of these characteristics? Questions to consider Egg-laying mammals
Only in Australia and New Guinea
Platypus and Echidna
Lay eggs
Have hair; milk (no nipples) Monotremes Mammals with a pouch
Opossums; Kangaroos; koalas
High metabolic rate; nipples w/ milk
Embryo develops in a uterus with placenta
Born early in development completing development nursing in pouch (marsupium) Marsupials Placentals are more complex than marsupials
Long period of pregnancy
Development concludes in uterus joined by placenta Eutherians (Placental Mammals) Lemurs; Tarsiers;
Monkeys; Apes
Hands and feet
Flat nails
Skin ridges on fingers
Large brain
Extensive parental care; complex social behavior
Tree-dwellers
Opposable thumb (monkeys and apes) Order Primates 20) Why were marsupials isolated in Australia and N/S America?
21) What is a monotreme? Is it more like the synaptid reptile or are marsupials more like them?
22) What is the difference between marsupials and placentals? Why is convergent evolution common among the two types of mammals?
23) Are the relationships among primates well established and accepted? Why? Questions to consider Koala Aardvark Rock hyrax Red squirrel Golden lion tamarin Indian rhinoceros Frog-eating bat Star-nosed mole Eulipotyphla
“Core insecti-
vores”: some
moles, some
shrews Rodentia
Squirrels,
beavers, rats,
porcupines,
mice   Perissodactyla
Horses,
zebras, tapirs,
rhinoceroses Primates
Lemurs,
monkeys,
apes,
humans Chiroptera
Bats Hyracoidea
Hyraxes Tubulidentata
Aardvark Marsupialia
Kangaroos,
opossums,
koalas MAIN CHARACTERISTICS ORDERS
AND EXAMPLES Embryo completes development in pouch on mother Teeth consisting of many thin tubes cemented together; eats ants and termites Short legs; stumpy tail; herbivorous; complex, multichambered
stomach Chisel-like, continuously growing incisors worn down by gnawing; herbivorous Opposable thumbs; forward-facing eyes; well-developed cerebral cortex; omnivorous Hooves with an odd number of toes on each foot; herbivorous Adapted for flight; broad skinfold that extends from elongated fingers to body and legs; carnivorous or herbivorous Diet consists mainly of insects and other small invertebrates Aquatic; streamlined body; paddle-like forelimbs and no hind limbs; thick layer of insulating blubber; carnivorous Hooves with an even number of toes on each foot; herbivorous Sharp, pointed canine teeth and molars for shearing; carnivorous Chisel-like incisors; hind legs longer than forelegs and adapted for running and jumping Reduced teeth or no teeth; herbivorous (sloths) or carnivorous (anteaters, armadillos) Aquatic; finlike forelimbs and no hind limbs; herbivorous Long, muscular trunk; thick, loose skin; upper incisors elongated as tusks Lay eggs; no nipples; young suck milk from fur of mother Pacific white- sided porpoise Bighorn sheep Coyote Jackrabbit Tamandua Manatee African elephant Echidna Cetaceans Whales, dolphins, porpoises Xenarthra Sloths, anteaters, armadillos Carnivora Dogs, wolves, bears, cats, weasels, otters,
seals, walruses Lagomorpha Rabbits, hares, picas Cetartiodactyla Artiodactyls Sheep, pigs cattle, deer, giraffes Sirenia Manatees, dugongs Proboscidea Elephants Monotremata Platypuses, echidnas MAIN CHARACTERISTICS ORDERS
AND EXAMPLES Mammalia

Orders Aves

Feathers

Wings

internal fertilization

eggs laid on land

Endothermic make their own body heat

Beak no teeth
Aves Class Dipnoi include the lungfishes which gulp air and have lung-like organs for gas exchange http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Australian-Lungfish.jpg Lobe-finned fishes

Thick fleshy muscular pelvic and pectoral fins

Thought to be part of the lineage that led to terrestrial tetrapods

(Sarcopterygii) Class Dipnoi
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