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Interactions Between the First Nations and the Europeans

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Melanie Dalke

on 11 June 2014

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Transcript of Interactions Between the First Nations and the Europeans

Interactions Between the First Nations and the Europeans
Cartier's First Voyage
Cartier's Second Voyage
In 1535 Cartier travelled up the St. Lawrence River, where he stopped at a First Nations community called Stadacona before continuing on to another community.

During the winter he returned to Stadacona, where 25 of his men died from scurvy. More would have died as well if one of the sons had not shown them how to make a medicinal drink.

When the First Nations people living at Stadacona began dying from European diseases, their relationship with the French started to decline. Cartier knew that he would still need their help if he was to continue travelling.

Before returning to France, Cartier captured the leader, his sons, three other leaders, and four children and kept them captive during the trip. The way he treated them created many problems for him from the remaining members of Stadacona.
Cartier's First Voyage
Cartier's Second Voyage
Cartier's Third Voyage
The Fur Trade
Christian Missionaries
When the Jesuits arrived, they tried to get the First Nations people to change their lifestyles by living in communities based on farming.

They also encouraged French men to marry First Nations women because they thought this would result in the women and their children converting to French language, religion, and culture.

After the Jesuits, the Ursuline nuns came with similar ideas, although they focused on teaching the First Nations girls about the Catholic faith.

They started a school for the children living in the Sillery reserve, where they were expected to live at the school all the time so as to only have the nuns' influence.

This didn't work very well as many children continually ran away from the school to return to their families and traditional ways of life.
Out of all the conflicts between the First Nations and the Europeans, the worst was by far the diseases brought over.

Some of the diseases, such as smallpox or influenza, had been present in European countries for many years, but the First Nations people had never encountered them before, and had no immunity to them.

When the Jesuits arrived, diseases were spread throughout the First Nations communities and, by the end of the 1630s, over half of the Wendat population had died from disease and wars over the fur trade.
Cartier's Third Voyage
In 1541, Cartier made his last trip to North America, in search of the gold, spices, other riches, and way to Asia he had heard stories of.

Once there, his plans for staying a long time were ruined as scurvy, a rough winter, and attacks from the Haudenosaunee people caused many deaths.

By the time spring arrived, Cartier had no choice but to return to France, and as a long civil war had begun, voyages to North America ended for fifty years.
Jacques Cartier convinced the French monarch in 1534 to fund another trip to North America, which would be his first voyage there. During that time, he met the First Nations people three times.

Cartier was introduced to the St. Lawrence River Haudenosaunee leader and convinced him to allow his two sons to travel back to France with him.

The sons were taught French so they could act as translators for future trips.

He learned much about the area's geography and many resources from the sons, and was granted a second voyage so that the French could use these resources.
As the demand for furs in Europe increased, many French merchants formed trading partnerships with the First Nations.

The First Nations were needed in order for the fur trade to be successful, and to begin with both sides gave and received fairly.

Later on, Europeans started to demand more from the First Nations and gave much less in return.

The fur trade also started conflicts between various First Nations communities. An example of this would be if some receive guns from trading before others, it gives them an unfair advantage.
The First Nations and the Europeans had many encounters, but the more important ones were:

The Fur Trade

Cartier`s First, Second, and Third Voyages

Christian Missionaries

By: Melanie
Full transcript