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Tube architecture: the tube-frame construction examples

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Sueda Kurun

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Tube architecture: the tube-frame construction examples

Variations of Tube Architecture
Key Examples of Tube Architecture
Thanks for your Attention
Prof. Dr. Ewa Stachura
Assist. Muhammed Hodzic
By 1963, a new structural system of framed tubes had appeared in skyscraper design and construction. Fazlur Khan defined the framed tube structure as "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation."
Concept of Tube Architecture
The tube system concept is based on the idea that a building can be designed to resist lateral loads by designing it as a hollow cantilever perpendicular to the ground. In the simplest incarnation of the tube, the perimeter of the exterior consists of closely spaced columns that are tied together with deep spandrel beams through moment connections. This assembly of columns and beams forms a rigid frame that amounts to a dense and strong structural wall along the exterior of the building.
In structural engineering, the tube is the system where in order to resist lateral loads (wind, seismic, etc.) a building is designed to act like a hollow cylinder, cantilevered perpendicular to the ground. The system can be constructed using steel, concrete, or composite construction (the discrete use of both steel and concrete). It can be used for office, apartment and mixed-use buildings. Most buildings in excess of 40 stories constructed since the 1960s are of this structural type.
Tube architecture: the tube-frame construction examples
The first example of the tube’s use is the 43-story Khan-designed DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building in Chicago, Illinois, completed in 1963.
This system was introduced by Fazlur Rahman Khan.
The exterior framing is designed sufficiently strong to resist all lateral loads on the building, thereby allowing the interior of the building to be simply framed for gravity loads. Interior columns are comparatively few and located at the core. The distance between the exterior and the core frames is spanned with beams or trusses and intentionally left column-free. The maximizes the effectiveness of the perimeter tube by transferring some of the gravity loads within the structure to it and increases its ability to resist overturning due to lateral loads.
Concept of Tube Architecture
Diagram of the Tube Architecture
Framed Tube
This is the simplest incarnation of the tube. It can take a variety of floor plan shapes from square and rectangular, circular, and freeform. This design was first used in Chicago's DeWitt-Chestnut apartment building, designed by Khan and completed in 1965, but the most notable examples are the Aon Center and the original World Trade Center towers.
Tube in tube
Also known as hull and core, these structures have a core tube inside the structure, holding the elevator and other services, and another tube around the exterior. The majority of the gravity and lateral loads are normally taken by the outer tube because of its greater strength
Bundled tube
Instead of one tube, a building consists of several tubes tied together to resist the lateral forces. Such buildings have interior columns along the perimeters of the tubes when they fall within the building envelope.
Trussed tube
Also known as the braced tube, it is similar to the simple tube but with comparatively fewer and farther-spaced exterior columns. Steel bracings or concrete shear walls are introduced along the exterior walls to compensate for the fewer columns by tying them together.
Hüsniye Aytaç
M. Sueda Kurun
World Trade Center - Twin Towers
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