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HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMISTRY
Transcript of HISTORICAL TIMELINE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMISTRY
GROUP NUMBER 3
THE SCIENTISTS/ CHEMIST
• Democritus is the first who discovered atom.
• Democritus is also known for having spent much of his life experimenting with and examining plants and minerals.
• Democritus’ thoughts on the nature of truth also previewed the development of the modern scientific method.
• Aristotle examined the nature of matter, space, time, and motion.
• Aristotle proved the Earth was a sphere.
• Aristotle proposed a fifth element, aether which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets).
• Equipment and techniques.
• Alchemists inherited the standard ideas of how the world works of their period, but they discussed them a lot and their variation and how it explained what they observed.
• Alchemist was also known for healing humans and metals. Alchemists and physician are almost the same.
• Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion
• Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature.
• His precise measurements and meticulous keeping of balance sheets throughout his experiment were vital to the wide spread acceptance of the law of conservation of mass
ANTOINE-LAURENT de LAVOISIER
• Johann Dobereiner put forward his law of triads
• Döbereiner reported trends in certain properties of selected groups of elements.
• Döbereiner also is known for his discovery of furfural, for his work on the use of platinum as a catalyst, and for a lighter, known as Döbereiner's lamp.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner
• He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory.
• He proposed that an atom is like a billiard ball
• Dalton contributed solutions of problems and questions on various subjects to The Ladies' Diary and the Gentleman's Diary. In 1787 at age 21 he began to keep a meteorological diary in which, during the succeeding 57 years, he entered more than 200,000 observations
He was one of the pioneers in developing the first periodic table of chemical elements
Mendeleev is most well-known for is his version of the periodic table and the contributions to what is called the periodic law.
Mendeleev studied petroleum origin and concluded hydrocarbons are abiogenic and form deep within the earth.
He investigated the expansion of liquids with heat, and devised a formula similar to Gay-Lussac's law of the uniformity of the expansion of gases.
Meyer’s earliest research
dealt with physiological
aspects of the uptake of
gases by the blood.
Meyer studied a number of benzene substitution reactions, particularly the nitration of benzene and its derivatives. He examined the effects of time, temperature, solvent, and concentration of reagents, feeling that chemists must go beyond a mere interest in the nature and quantity of products and must subject chemical reactions themselves to quantitative study.
John Newlands put
forward his law
of octaves in 1864.
He arranged all the
elements known at the time
into a table in order of
relative atomic mass.
• Proposed classifying the elements in the order of increasing atomic weights, the elements being assigned ordinal numbers from unity upward and divided into seven groups having properties closely related to the first seven of the elements then known: hydrogen, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.
• Was the first person to systematically produce a• Was the first person to systematically produce and detect electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen raysnd detect electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays or Röntgen rays.
His research also included work on elasticity, capillary action of fluids, specific heats of gases, conduction of heat in crystals, absorption of heat by gases, and piezoelectricity.
He studied were the electrical and other characteristics of quartz; the influence of pressure on the refractive indices of various fluids.
He discovered that tubes with a perforated cathode also emit a glow at the cathode end.
Goldstein undertook his own investigations of discharge tubes, and named the light emissions studied by cathode rays.
Goldstein also used discharge
tubes to investigate comets.
• Becquerel thought that phosphorescent materials, such as some uranium salts, might emit penetrating X-ray-like radiation when illuminated by bright sunlight
• Becquerel's earliest works centered on the subject of his doctoral thesis: the plane polarization of light, with the phenomenon of phosphorescence and absorption of light by crystals
• Becquerel's discovery of spontaneous radioactivity is a famous example of serendipity, of how chance favors the prepared mind. Becquerel had long been interested in phosphorescence, the emission of light of one color following a body's exposure to light of another color.
• J.J. Thomson discovered the electron.
ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL
SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON
ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN
• Thomson discovered the natural radioactivity of potassium.
Thomson demonstrated that hydrogen had only a single electron per atom.
• Her contributions such as the discovery of Radium and other key elements help us out every day.
• Was that there was something inside that emitted these rays even more than uranium.
• she made highly significant discoveries that greatly expanded the understanding of the makeup of matter.
• Milikan used the oil-drop experiment to measure the charge of the electrons.
• He improved the photoelectron equation of Albert Einstein
• He also measure the value of Planck’s constant
• Rutherford was one of the first to design highly original experiments with high-frequency, alternating currents
• He invented a detector for electromagnetic waves.
• Rutherford designed an experiment to use the alpha particles emitted by a radioactive element as probes to the unseen world of atomic structure.
The discoveries of the electron and radioactivity at the end of the 19th century led to different models for the structure of the atom.
Niels Bohr proposed a theory for the hydrogen atom based on quantum theory that energy is transferred only in certain well defined quantities.
Electrons should move around the nucleus but only in prescribed orbits.
• Moseley showed that high potentials were attainable from a radioactive source of radium, thereby inventing the first atomic battery, though he was unable to produce the 1MeV necessary to stop the particles
• Moseley's discovery showed that atomic numbers were not arbitrarily assigned, but rather, they have a strong physical basis. Moseley postulated that each successive element is exactly one proton heavier than its predecessor
• The X-ray spectrometers as Moseley knew them worked as follows. A glass-bulb electron tube was used, similar to that held by Moseley in the photo at the top of this article
• Chadwick discovered that -rays (electrons) are emitted in a continuous spectrum, at odds with other groups' results, and a finding that eventually led to the theory and discovery of the neutrino.
• James Chadwick played a vital role in the atomic theory, as he discovered the Neutron in atoms.
• Chadwick discovered this subatomic particle by using a neutron chamber in his experiments
He proposed the Electron cloud model
He is the one who contribute to the Quantum Mechanics
He proposed the unified field theory
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