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Joseon Korea and Tokugawa Japan

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Jennifer Park

on 16 May 2014

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Transcript of Joseon Korea and Tokugawa Japan

Joseon Korea
economy grew by leaps and bounds
peace brought to
countryside by
absolutism
success in agriculture
Tokugawa Japan
Hideyoshi Invasion of Korea (1592-98)
Goryeo
Goguryeo
Baekje
Silla
Pseudo-Feudalism
King and Ministers
Buddhist Monks and Clans
Corruption
1392
Yi Seong-gye
Sung Confucian Scholars
Yi Seong-gye
Confucian Scholars
Loyalty to King
filial duty to parents
Taejong
Sejong the Great
Confucianism in government and everyday life
(Relatively) good relations with Ming, Jurchen, and Japanese
Consolidated borders
Let's have philosophical debates on the period of time that the King must wear his mourning robes.
Confucianism is wonderful! Let's apply it to our everyday lives.
EVERYONE IS DYING
King
Scholars
Clans
Andong Kim Clan
Sejo
Government staffed through exams, gwageo
Philosopher King
Literacy and being learned far more valued than military might
Ministers
Military
Scholars
Shift of importance back to military
Loss of legitimacy in government
Loss of King's power
Expelled by the Ming Chinese

Absolutism in Joseon
Korea & Tokugawa Japan

Raymond Choi, Leah Giannantonio
Jennifer Park, & Bianca Pereira
May 9, 2014
Introduction

How was absolutism structured in Joseon Korea & Tokugawa Japan?
Government & Political System
Korea-
Not absolutist
Division of power

Tokugawa Japan-
"The Three Unifiers"
The Bakuhan governmental system
Social Structure & Class
Korea-
The great influence of Confucianism
The different social classes
Economy
Joseon Korea-pseudo feudalism

Tokugawa Japan - absolutism lead to peace led to economic prosperity
Foreign Relations
Joseon Korea-
Effects of China and Japan

Tokugawa Japan-
Policy of seclusion
Economy
Foreign Relations
Oda Nobunaga
Portuguese discovery of Japan in 1543
Trade with Western nations flourished
Introduction of Christianity
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Hostility towards foreigners
Arrival of Spanish Franciscan & Dominican monks introduced an element of national rivalry between factions
Japanese leaders feared military conquest by Spain or Portugal
Persecution of all Catholics
Tokugawa leyasu
Like Toyotomi, grew skeptical of Portuguese and Spanish intentions for Japan
Entry of Christianity brought corruption
SAKOKU = "closed country" -> secluded Japan from the rest of the world
Relations under the Sakoku
No Japanese could travel abroad or return to Japan
No official trade relations with any Western nation
Friendly diplomatic relations w/ Korea
Commercial relations w/ China
Limited communication w/ Russia and the Netherlands
Tokugawa Japan
Evaluation

Dutch Relations
Trade monopoly w/ Japan
Complied with all orders
Allowed to reside in Japan
Dutch tried to establish friendly relations
Foreign expansion WAS making its way to Japan
...but only completely 250 years later
The Three Great Unifiers
Oda Nobunaga
1568-1582
At the end of the 15th century...
Japan on the verge of anarchy
Ashikaga government (shogunate) in an era of "warring states"
Sengoku
Diffused power
Nobunaga in the mid 16th century
Son of a samurai and military commander under the Ashikaga government
Seized the imperial capital of Kyoto
Tried to consolidate his rule by force
Killed by one of his generals
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
1582-1598
Nobunaga in the mid 16th century
Farmer's son; military commander
Extended power to outward southern islands
Invaded Korea in an abortive effort to export his ruler to the Asian mainland
Tokugawa Ieyasu
1596-1616
However...
Unable to restore central authority
Both rulers wanted to form alliances to destroy rivals
This led to an even more decentralized rule
Advancements in Agriculture
new seeds
new tools
use of fertilizer
Tokugawa after Hideyoshi's Death
Lord Hideyoshi
Japanese warlord

Invaded Korea in 1592

China (Ming Dynasty) came to aid Korea

Korea left in ruins
Manchu Qing Dynasty
Manchus were nomadic barbarians who came from the Manchuria

Invaded Korea in 1627 and 1936 and forced it to pay tribute to the king

Manchus later went on to conquer China and establish the Qing Dynasty in 1644
greater crop output
Centralized Bureaucracy
Inspired by the Chinese form of government
Similar to the European feudal system
Very bureaucratic
Bakuhan system
Emperor
Symbolic rulers of the country
No substantial power
Bestowed the title of shogun on the Tokugawa clan
Shoguns
Title for a military commander in ancient Japan
Later title for ruler of Shogunate Japan
Theoretically subordinate to the emperors
Carried supreme authority
Power of local affairs limited by daimyo
Assisted by councilors
Samurai
Policing
Worked as bureaucrats
Daimyo
Feudal lords
Governed lands given to them by shoguns
Managed local affairs
Retained their own vassals
population increase
towns/cities (Edo)
artisans/merchants
trade
more money
new roads
more trade
Joseon Korea
Emperor
wealthy merchant class
(lent money to daimyo and samurai, married into samurai class)
Shogun
Daimyo
Samurai
Economic prosperity
brought about
by absolutism
Peace

Social Structure
Social Structure
King and Royal Family
Hundreds of servants, eunuchs, and slaves catered to the royal family

The King met with government officials to discuss the affairs of the kingdom

Scribes recorded the actions of the King in the Sillok

The Queen was in charge of associating with the ladies of the court and ensuring palace affairs ran smoothly
The Yangban
The scholarly nobles in society

Yangban means two orders of civil and military control

Yangban had factions, each trying to gain power

Yangban received their status by passing civil or military exams
Commoners
Consisted of peasants, craftsmen, and merchants

Merchants were the lowest member of this Commoners

Music and dance were used as forms of entertainment
Lowborn
Consisted of slaves, monks, shamans, butchers, and anyone who handled the dead

Slaves typically lived in the hundreds and were owned by the yangban

Being in the lowborn class is hereditary and there is little social mobility

Private slaves could by thier freedom

Obligation by owners to care for slaves

Slaves could and often did own property
Tokugawas created a unified, orderly society
The Five Key Relationships
1. Ruler to Subject
2. Father to Son
3. Husband to Wife
4. Elder to Younger
5. Friend to Friend
rules for daimyo -
had to stay in Edo
new laws under absolutist rule -fixed old social order
-made strict moral code
Social Structure
shogun - highest class, supreme military commanders

controlled only some land
distributed lands to vassal lords who agreed to support shoguns with armies - called daimyo
daimyo distributed land to lesser warriors - samurai

What are samurai?
Samurai
"those who serve"
fighting aristocracy
followed the
bushido
a code of values, emphasizing bravery, honor, and loyalty
those who betrayed it were
expected to commit seppuku
Religion
-Tokugawa opposition to Christianity, prevalent Confucianism, rise of Zen
Not all good -
lower class people
and women suffered
under absolutist social
structure.
How?
Women -
Lower Class -
note: merchants were considered lower class but could marry into samurai class
Government degree stated: "The husband must work in the fields, the wife must work at the loom. Both must do night work. However good-looking a wife may be, if she neglects her household duties by drinking tea or sightseeing or rambling on the hillsides, she must be divorced."
Absolutism
could not act in plays
that became a part of culture
peasants had to remain on the land
lower classes were not allowed luxuries such as
silk clothing
Mainly agricultural
Land owned by clans worked by slaves and peasants
Everyone is a Yangban
Trade
Economy
Opposition
-not much foreign military interference

reason for foreign opposition:
other countries requested trade with Japan, but Tokugawa resisted
Why?
Opium Wars
internal strife between daimyo territories in earlier years
Europe disliked his absolutism for this reason
What is absolutism?

a political theory that absolute power should be vested in one or more rulers
1418 – 1450
Yeongjo
1724 – 1776
Jeongjo
1776 – 1800
Initiated himself as the leader under the emperor
Completed restoration of central authority
Bakuhan government system
"Oda pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, and in the end Ieyasu sits down and eats it."
As we conclude that end Korea did not follow an absolutist system of government as shown by the Yangban handling civil and military affairs and decreasing power of the King over time, we are unable to actually complete the task assigned to us and evaluate the effect of absolutism in Joseon Korea.
Tokugawa Japan

Government & Political System


Economy
Social Structure

Foreign Relations
Positive
Negative
Japan
shogun, daimyo & samurai
women & lower class
Sources
http://history.emory.edu/home/assets/documents/endeavors/volume3/YayoriTakano.pdf
http://www.nakasendoway.com/?page_id=1035
http://epicworldhistory.blogspot.com/2012/04/japan-tokugawa-bakuhan-system.html
http://asianhistory.about.com/od/japan/p/History-Tokugawa-Shogunate-Japan.htm
Workers were not tied to the land
Contracts
Full transcript