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The Divided Kingdom: Kings of Judah and Israel

Bible Study
by

michael Thompson

on 25 July 2010

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Transcript of The Divided Kingdom: Kings of Judah and Israel


• Jeroboam 1
• Nadab
• Baasha
• Elah
• Zimri
• Tibni
• Omri
• Ahab
• Ahaziah
• Jehoram (Joram)
Kings of Judah Kings of Israel Rehoboam, son of Solomon and Naamah the Ammonitess, became the first ruler of the Southern Kingdom of Judah at age 41. Rehoboam refused to alleviate the burdens of taxation and forced labor, which Solomon had laid upon them, and the northern tribes seceded from the state, proclaiming Jeroboam as their king.

Only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained under Rehoboam's rule. Rehoboam tried to force the northern tribes to acknowledge him as their king, but God sent the prophet Shemaiah to stop the war before it started. Rehoboam, at the height of his power, abandoned the lord.

As a result, King Shishak of Egypt attacked Jerusalem in the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign. The Egyptians conquered Jerusalem and took away all of the treasures of the Temple and palace, including Solomon's gold shields, and Judah was forced to pay annual tribute to Shishak. But the economy of Judah remained strong even after the invasion.

There were constant battles between Rehoboam and Jeroboam, and after 17 years of reign Rehoboam died. He was buried in Jerusalem and his son, Abijah, became the new king. Rehoboam had 18 wives and 60 concubines, who together bore him 28 sons and 60 daughters.

His story is found in 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles. The name Rehoboam means "may the people be enlarged."
Rehoboam, son of Solomon and Naamah the Ammonitess, became the first ruler of the Southern Kingdom of Judah at age 41. Rehoboam refused to alleviate the burdens of taxation and forced labor, which Solomon had laid upon them, and the northern tribes seceded from the state, proclaiming Jeroboam as their king.

Only the tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained under Rehoboam's rule. Rehoboam tried to force the northern tribes to acknowledge him as their king, but God sent the prophet Shemaiah to stop the war before it started. Rehoboam, at the height of his power, abandoned the lord.

As a result, King Shishak of Egypt attacked Jerusalem in the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign. The Egyptians conquered Jerusalem and took away all of the treasures of the Temple and palace, including Solomon's gold shields, and Judah was forced to pay annual tribute to Shishak. But the economy of Judah remained strong even after the invasion.

There were constant battles between Rehoboam and Jeroboam, and after 17 years of reign Rehoboam died. He was buried in Jerusalem and his son, Abijah, became the new king. Rehoboam had 18 wives and 60 concubines, who together bore him 28 sons and 60 daughters.

His story is found in 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles. The name Rehoboam means "may the people be enlarged." Saul- the king - was the first king of Israel. He was the son of Kish of the tribe of Benjamin. He became king at about the time that Samuel had retired as the last Judge of Israel. Although the land of Israel had been ruled by judges, the people were clamoring to have a king, like other nations. Samuel asked the Lord for advice. God directed Samuel to Saul and to anoint him as the first king.

Saul, his army, and a miracle from God, defeated the Philistines in their first battle. He then defeated Moab, Ammon, Edom, the kings of Zobah, and the Amalekites. However Saul did not obey the Lord, and kept some of the loot after defeating the Amalekites. For this, God rejected Saul as king of Israel. The Lord had Samuel anoint young David as the next king.

After David killed Goliath, Saul made David his special assistant, and as David succeeded in everything he did, Saul grew extremely jealous. Saul became possessed by an evil spirit, went into fits of anger and tried to kill David several times. He even threw a spear at his own son Jonathan, who had become David's close friend.

After Samuel died, the Philistines invaded Israelite territory and gathered forces at Shunem. Saul had a foreboding of his fate, and as he did not have Samuel to ask God for advice, he traveled to En Dor to consult a witch about the outcome of the battle. The result of the seance confirmed his worst fears, he was told that the entire Israel army would be routed by the Philistines, and that he and his three sons would be killed.

The Israelite army had no chariots and could not withstand the assault of the heavy Philistine weaponry. On Mount Gilboa, Saul and his three sons were killed. Their bodies were brought to Jabesh where they were cremated. David after learning of Saul's death, moved to Hebron and was crowned king of the Judean confederacy.

The story of Saul is found in 1 Samuel, chapters 9-31. Ish-bosheth Rehoboam Solomon David A son of Saul who Abner proclaimed king after Saul's death (2 Sam. 2:8-10). The tribe of Judah proclaimed David king after the death of Saul, but the other 11 tribes remained loyal to Saul's family. Ishbosheth reigned two turbulent years from Mahanaim, east of the Jordan River, while David ruled Judah from Hebron.

Ishbosheth made a grave error in charging Abner with having relations with Saul's concubine, Rizpah. In anger, Abner changed his alliance to David (2 Sam. 3:6-21). When Joab murdered Abner in Hebron (2 Sam. 3:27), Ishbosheth became discouraged. Two captains of his guard, Baanah and Rechab, assassinated Ishbosheth as he lay napping.

They carried Ishbosheth's severed head to David, who ordered it buried in the tomb of Abner in Hebron. Then David put the assassins to death (2 Sam. 4:5-12). Saul's Dynasty ended with Ishbosheth's death. The name Ishbosheth means "man of shame."
David was the youngest son of Jesse, the great-grandson of Boaz and Ruth, born in Bethlehem in the tribe of Judah. He was handpicked by God, anointed by Samuel, and became Israel's second, and greatest, king.

David was a shepherd in his early years. After killing Goliath, with a slingshot, he joined the entourage of King Saul, Israel's first king. Saul eventually became jealous of David's popularity with the Israelites and tried to kill him several times. David and his followers had to flee and hide out from Saul, but with the defeat of the Israelites and the death of Saul at the hands of the Philistines, David was anointed King over Judah.

Later, David defeated Ishbosheth the son of Saul, who was King of the northern tribes of Israel. Thereafter, in his eighth year, David united all the tribes and became King of all Israelites. He moved the capitol to Jerusalem, and brought the sacred Ark of the Covenant there.

David defeated the Philistines in two decisive battles, at Baal Perazim and at Rephaim, and the Philistines were no longer a serious threat to Israel. David then defeated Moab, Edom, Damascus, and Ammon, and they all became subjugated.

David committed adultery with Bathsheba and sent her husband Uriah to his death. For this, God rebuked David through Nathan the prophet, and told David that murder will be a constant threat to his family from this time on. David's first child by Bathsheba died seven days after birth. One of David's sons, Absalom, killed his half-brother Amnon, after Amnon raped Absalom's sister, Tamar.

Later, Absalom revolted against his father David and tried to take over the throne, but was killed by Joab, David's army commander. Another son of David, Adonijah, was killed soon after David died.

David was king for about 40 years. He was an extraordinary musician and poet, and wrote many of the Psalms in the Book of Psalms. He had many sons and daughters and died at an old age, and Solomon, his second son by Bathsheba, became the next king.

David is noted for several things. He initiated a cultural and literary revival which was continued by Solomon. He undertook far-reaching reforms in national institutions and administration. He also began preparations for building a central sanctuary in Jerusalem (the first Temple) and chose the site. The worship of God became the official state religion, and the priesthood was organized under the chief priests. He also reorganized the army.

Because the prophets, during the Old Testament times, had proclaimed that the Messiah would be a descendant of King David, people would use the phrase "son of David" as a way to refer to Messianic prophecy or to their hopes that the Messiah would arrive during their lifetime.

Jesus is often called the "son of David." A blind man named Bartimaeus, for example, refers to Jesus by that title, in Mark 10:46-52, shortly before Jesus healed him and restored his sight.

Details about the life of David can be found in the Bible's books of 1 and 2 Samuel and the first two chapters of 1 Kings, also in 1 Chronicles.
Solomon, the son of King David and Bathsheba, was the third king of Israel. Solomon was renown for his wisdom, wealth and for his construction projects. Israel enjoyed an era of security, prosperity, and international political and economic importance under Solomon.

Solomon was anointed king when his older brother, Adonijah, rashly tried to proclaim himself as ruler when their father, King David, became old. But Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, with the support of others, crowned Solomon as King.

Solomon began his 40-year reign in 967 BC while David was still alive. Thanks to the conquests of David, Solomon's domain stretched from Tipshah on the Euphrates to Gaza on the border of Egypt. The Lord appeared to Solomon in a dream and told him to ask for anything he wanted. Solomon asked for wisdom to lead the Israelites. God was so pleased with Solomon's reply, He not only gave him wisdom, but riches and honor too.

It was in the fourth year of Solomon's reign, that he began the construction of the Temple. Seven years later it was completed, and the Ark of the Covenant was moved from the Tabernacle in Zion, the City of David, to the Temple. He also built a large palace for himself, Fort Millo, the wall of Jerusalem, and the cities of Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer.

He also built cities for grain storage, cities to keep his chariots, homes for his army, and resort cities. He built a fleet of ships to bring gold in from Ophir. People from many lands came to visit him and to listen to his God-given wisdom, including the Queen of Sheba.

Solomon took many foreign wives - 700 wives and 300 concubines, and they turned his heart away from the Lord, and they encouraged him to worship their gods. He even built temples for these foreign wives to use for burning incense and for offering sacrifices to their gods. This made the lord angry, and the Lord told Solomon that after Solomon's death, He would take the Kingdom away from Solomon's son, except for one tribe.

After Solomon's death his son, Rehoboam, became King of Judah, while an enemy of Solomon, Jeroboam, became king of the northern tribes.

Solomon was the author of 3,000 proverbs and wrote 1,005 songs. The Books of Ecclesiastes, The Song of Songs, and parts of the Book of Proverbs are ascribed to him. The story of Solomon is found in 1 Kings, chapters 1-11, and in 2 Chronicles, chapters 1-9. The name Solomon means "peace/welfare."
The Divided Kingdom:
The Kings of Judah and Israel Kings of United Israel
• Jehu
• Jehoahaz
• Jehoash (Joash)
• Jeroboam 2
• Zechariah
• Shallum
• Menahem
• Pekahiah
• Pekah
• Hoshea Saul • Rehoboam
• Abijah
• Asa
• Jehoshaphat
• Jehoram
• Ahaziah (Jehoahaz)
• Athaliah (Queen)
• Joash (Jehoash)
• Amaziah
• Uzziah (Azariah)
• Jotham
• Ahaz
• Hezekiah
• Manasseh
• Amon
• Josiah
• Jehoahaz
• Jehoiakim
• Jehoiachin
• Zedekiah Davids old age
1:1-4 } Adonijah's
Quest for Power
1:5-10 Nathan and Bathsheba's Counter Plot
1:11-27 28 Then King David said, "Call in Bathsheba." So she came into the king's presence and stood before him.
29 The king then took an oath: "As surely as the LORD lives, who has delivered me out of every trouble, 30 I will surely carry out today what I swore to you by the LORD, the God of Israel: Solomon your son shall be king after me, and he will sit on my throne in my place."

31 Then Bathsheba bowed low with her face to the ground and, kneeling before the king, said, "May my lord King David live forever!"

32 King David said, "Call in Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet and Benaiah son of Jehoiada." When they came before the king, 33 he said to them: "Take your lord's servants with you and set Solomon my son on my own mule and take him down to Gihon. 34 There have Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him king over Israel. Blow the trumpet and shout, 'Long live King Solomon!' 35 Then you are to go up with him, and he is to come and sit on my throne and reign in my place. I have appointed him ruler over Israel and Judah."

36 Benaiah son of Jehoiada answered the king, "Amen! May the LORD, the God of my lord the king, so declare it. 37 As the LORD was with my lord the king, so may he be with Solomon to make his throne even greater than the throne of my lord King David!"

38 So Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, the Kerethites and the Pelethites went down and put Solomon on King David's mule and escorted him to Gihon. 39 Zadok the priest took the horn of oil from the sacred tent and anointed Solomon. Then they sounded the trumpet and all the people shouted, "Long live King Solomon!" 40 And all the people went up after him, playing flutes and rejoicing greatly, so that the ground shook with the sound.

41 Adonijah and all the guests who were with him heard it as they were finishing their feast. On hearing the sound of the trumpet, Joab asked, "What's the meaning of all the noise in the city?"

42 Even as he was speaking, Jonathan son of Abiathar the priest arrived. Adonijah said, "Come in. A worthy man like you must be bringing good news."

43 "Not at all!" Jonathan answered. "Our lord King David has made Solomon king. 44 The king has sent with him Zadok the priest, Nathan the prophet, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, the Kerethites and the Pelethites, and they have put him on the king's mule, 45 and Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king at Gihon. From there they have gone up cheering, and the city resounds with it. That's the noise you hear. 46 Moreover, Solomon has taken his seat on the royal throne. 47 Also, the royal officials have come to congratulate our lord King David, saying, 'May your God make Solomon's name more famous than yours and his throne greater than yours!' And the king bowed in worship on his bed 48 and said, 'Praise be to the LORD, the God of Israel, who has allowed my eyes to see a successor on my throne today.' "

49 At this, all Adonijah's guests rose in alarm and dispersed. 50 But Adonijah, in fear of Solomon, went and took hold of the horns of the altar. 51 Then Solomon was told, "Adonijah is afraid of King Solomon and is clinging to the horns of the altar. He says, 'Let King Solomon swear to me today that he will not put his servant to death with the sword.' "

52 Solomon replied, "If he shows himself to be a worthy man, not a hair of his head will fall to the ground; but if evil is found in him, he will die." 53 Then King Solomon sent men, and they brought him down from the altar. And Adonijah came and bowed down to King Solomon, and Solomon said, "Go to your home."
{ 1 When King David was old and well advanced in years, he could not keep warm even when they put covers over him. 2 So his servants said to him, "Let us look for a young virgin to attend the king and take care of him. She can lie beside him so that our lord the king may keep warm."
3 Then they searched throughout Israel for a beautiful girl and found Abishag, a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. 4 The girl was very beautiful; she took care of the king and waited on him, but the king had no intimate relations with her.

5 Now Adonijah, whose mother was Haggith, put himself forward and said, "I will be king." So he got chariots and horses ready, with fifty men to run ahead of him. 6 (His father had never interfered with him by asking, "Why do you behave as you do?" He was also very handsome and was born next after Absalom.)

7 Adonijah conferred with Joab son of Zeruiah and with Abiathar the priest, and they gave him their support. 8 But Zadok the priest, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, Nathan the prophet, Shimei and Rei [b] and David's special guard did not join Adonijah.

9 Adonijah then sacrificed sheep, cattle and fattened calves at the Stone of Zoheleth near En Rogel. He invited all his brothers, the king's sons, and all the men of Judah who were royal officials, 10 but he did not invite Nathan the prophet or Benaiah or the special guard or his brother Solomon.

11 Then Nathan asked Bathsheba, Solomon's mother, "Have you not heard that Adonijah, the son of Haggith, has become king without our lord David's knowing it? 12 Now then, let me advise you how you can save your own life and the life of your son Solomon. 13 Go in to King David and say to him, 'My lord the king, did you not swear to me your servant: "Surely Solomon your son shall be king after me, and he will sit on my throne"? Why then has Adonijah become king?' 14 While you are still there talking to the king, I will come in and confirm what you have said."

15 So Bathsheba went to see the aged king in his room, where Abishag the Shunammite was attending him. 16 Bathsheba bowed low and knelt before the king.
"What is it you want?" the king asked.

17 She said to him, "My lord, you yourself swore to me your servant by the LORD your God: 'Solomon your son shall be king after me, and he will sit on my throne.' 18 But now Adonijah has become king, and you, my lord the king, do not know about it. 19 He has sacrificed great numbers of cattle, fattened calves, and sheep, and has invited all the king's sons, Abiathar the priest and Joab the commander of the army, but he has not invited Solomon your servant. 20 My lord the king, the eyes of all Israel are on you, to learn from you who will sit on the throne of my lord the king after him. 21 Otherwise, as soon as my lord the king is laid to rest with his fathers, I and my son Solomon will be treated as criminals."

22 While she was still speaking with the king, Nathan the prophet arrived. 23 And they told the king, "Nathan the prophet is here." So he went before the king and bowed with his face to the ground.

24 Nathan said, "Have you, my lord the king, declared that Adonijah shall be king after you, and that he will sit on your throne? 25 Today he has gone down and sacrificed great numbers of cattle, fattened calves, and sheep. He has invited all the king's sons, the commanders of the army and Abiathar the priest. Right now they are eating and drinking with him and saying, 'Long live King Adonijah!' 26 But me your servant, and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah son of Jehoiada, and your servant Solomon he did not invite. 27 Is this something my lord the king has done without letting his servants know who should sit on the throne of my lord the king after him?"

David Makes Solomon King

Solomon's
Selection as King
1:28-37 { Solomon's
Anointing
By Zadok
1:38-50 } { 1 When the time drew near for David to die, he gave a charge to Solomon his son.
2 "I am about to go the way of all the earth," he said. "So be strong, show yourself a man, 3 and observe what the LORD your God requires: Walk in his ways, and keep his decrees and commands, his laws and requirements, as written in the Law of Moses, so that you may prosper in all you do and wherever you go, 4 and that the LORD may keep his promise to me: 'If your descendants watch how they live, and if they walk faithfully before me with all their heart and soul, you will never fail to have a man on the throne of Israel.'

5 "Now you yourself know what Joab son of Zeruiah did to me—what he did to the two commanders of Israel's armies, Abner son of Ner and Amasa son of Jether. He killed them, shedding their blood in peacetime as if in battle, and with that blood stained the belt around his waist and the sandals on his feet. 6 Deal with him according to your wisdom, but do not let his gray head go down to the grave [a] in peace.

7 "But show kindness to the sons of Barzillai of Gilead and let them be among those who eat at your table. They stood by me when I fled from your brother Absalom.

8 "And remember, you have with you Shimei son of Gera, the Benjamite from Bahurim, who called down bitter curses on me the day I went to Mahanaim. When he came down to meet me at the Jordan, I swore to him by the LORD : 'I will not put you to death by the sword.' 9 But now, do not consider him innocent. You are a man of wisdom; you will know what to do to him. Bring his gray head down to the grave in blood."

10 Then David rested with his fathers and was buried in the City of David. 11 He had reigned forty years over Israel—seven years in Hebron and thirty-three in Jerusalem. 12 So Solomon sat on the throne of his father David, and his rule was firmly established. David's Last Words and Death
2:1-12 } The Death of David and
The Accession of Solomon
Full transcript