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1000 - Class 19
Transcript of 1000 - Class 19
Means of organizing tyrannical or despotic rule in a modern society, but also based on attempt to remake or mould society.
1.) Limited political pluralism
2.) No elaborate or guiding ideology, though economic development is usually a goal
Related: tyranny and despotism.
(Aristotle) Tyranny: rule by one in his/her own interest
(Montesquieu) Despotism: one person ruling through fear without regard to law
Rule is arbitrary and not bound by law
Rule is based on coercion and fear
Greek: auto (meaning “self”) and kratia (meaning “power” or “rule”)
“Self-rule” – doing whatever you want if you have the power.
Totalitarianism imposes a single mass political party that penetrates all aspects of state and society
George Orwell: 1984
One Party State
1.) Attempt to remake society according to an official ideology (monistic: single idea or factor)
2.) A single party typically led by single, powerful person
3.) Psuedo-democracy (i.e. democratic centralism)
4.) A communications monopoly
5.) Use of Terror
6.) Law as a tool of the state (no Rule of Law)
7.) A centrally-directed economy
Elements of Totalitarianism
(whether Right or left):
tolerate little or no opposition
may do almost anything to remain in power
reject principles of liberal democracy
4-5.) Statism: Central planning and state-run economy
The rigours of central planning are softened by bribery and corruption
Police terrorism is sometimes used to retain power
1.) Social pluralism is sometimes tolerated as long as it does not become politically dangerous (normally, less than right-wing).
2.) Ideology: official ideology – usually some variety of socialism, combined with a strong element of nationalism.
5.) Bias toward statism
6.) A major political role for the military
Usually the dominant institution in this regime
3.) No extensive political mobilization
4.) Leaders exercise power within ill-defined yet predictable limits
Posc 1000 – Intro to Political Science
Law is a tool.
State (leader and party) determine law - arbitrary.
No rule of law = lack of personal and political rights.
Law and State - totalitarianism
Leaders typically hand power to another, or have it forcibly taken.
(counterpart to elections in democracies)
A forcible and unconstitutional change of government.
3.) Political mobilization:
mobilization of the masses is a continuing
theme, often as members of single political party.
Authority that may or may not rest on wide popular support, but is not put to the test of free elections
Variety of types:
Generally refers to:
Nazi regime (Adolph Hitler, Germany)
Stalinist regime (Joseph Stalin, Soviet Union)
Maoist regime (Mao Zedong, People’s Republic of China)
Right-wing (conservative): sees mission as protecting society from harmful (sometimes socialist) influences