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Trust

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Greeshma Pradeep

on 4 May 2016

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Transcript of Trust

Trust
Knowledge Question
Real Life Situation
Claim
Intuitions, also referred to as the sixth sense, is a reliable way of knowing when placing trust.
To what extent is a reliable way of knowing when
placing
?
- Greeshma Pradeep
- Harshit Malik

Counterclaim #1: Intuition
"Intuition influences our decision automatically and without reflection". leading us to making rash decisions.
Evidence
Counterclaim #2: Memory
“Biased memories are important determinants of the extent to which you trust”. Therefore, memory, not just intuition, is a reliable way of knowing when placing trust.

Counterclaim #3: Emotion
“The Affect Infusion Model claims that a person’s current emotional state alters their appraisal of new stimuli by nudging them into the direction of the valance of the emotion (positive or negative) that is already being experienced.” Thus intuition cannot be the only power at play.

Evidence
Affect infusion suggests that people in positive moods will be more trusting. These people will have an easier time accessing memories where trusting behavior led to a positive outcome. These expectations are supported in several studies of the effects of mood on social interaction. People in positive mood are more altruistic and make more optimistic predictions about future events, such as the future actions of others (Hertel and Fiedler, 1994).

Counterclaim #4: Sense Perception
Sense perception, rather the lack of it, can help create a mental ‘mantra’ that helps us continue trusting the decisions we make, or trust decisions made by authority, regardless of the ethicality of the action.

Evidence
Miligram Experiment carried out by psychologist Stanley Miligram.Results were that:
Intuition can give us an invaluable and instantaneous grasp of the current situation (trusting in this case).
However, it cannot be used in isolation.
Other ways of knowing, like memory, emotion, and sense perception, must also be employed when relying on decisions/people/things in general.
Therefore, intuition is an overlap of many different ways of knowing.
It is vital to be deliberate and analytical!
Trusting your intuition is alright but you must not fool yourself.
Intuition, after all, gives us only rough judgements of patterns in the world. It is a way of knowing that we must treat with awareness and care.
Other Real Life Situations
Trusting doctors in a world where there is a high possibility of a wrong diagnose.
After being betrayed once, we crave to trust a loved one again. But is there a possibility of reform?
Entrepreneurs, when making business decisions and investments, have to follow their 'instinct', and be risk-takers to achieve great feats.
Bibliography
http://www.cdtl.nus.edu.sg/ctp/reasoning.htm
http://moodle.houstonisd.org/LAMARHS/mod/resource/view.php?id=3776
http://blog.practicalethics.ox.ac.uk/2014/07/tony-coady-trusting-emotion-trusting-reason-a-false-dichotomy/
http://prezi.com/7nugodcso5zd/tok-presentation-tips/
http://braingames.nationalgeographic.com/episode/20/
http://www.oprah.com/spirit/The-Science-of-Intuition
http://www.timwoods.org/2013/09/13/how-to-structure-a-theory-of-knowledge-presentation/
http://www.tubeplus.me/player/2133840/Brain_Games/season_3/episode_3/Trust_Me/?huid=exa180s5qa4a
http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/a/memory.htm
http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/dtingley/files/emotionmanipulationm11.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confirmation_bias#In_politics_and_law
http://changingminds.org/explanations/trust/what_is_trust.htm
http://www.forbes.com/sites/margiewarrell/2013/08/12/are-you-trusting-people-you-shouldnt-4-quick-questions-to-ask-yourself/
http://braingames.nationalgeographic.com/episode/3/
Dark matters- twisted but true
Oxford IB diploma programme (2013 edition) theory of knowledge
http://time.com/103396/we-trust-strangers-even-when-it-doesnt-make-sense-to-do-so/
http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2013/02/trust-makes-you-delusional-and-thats-not-all-bad.html
Evidence
A boy was bitten by a rabid dog
Travelled to France to get treatment from Louis Pasteur, who claimed he had the vaccination.
2 attempts had been made previously:
Vaccination tried on a 60 year old man, who did not return for a second vaccination.
A girl who died before receiving the second vaccination.
Remember that Louis Pasteur was not a medical doctor.
Started a course of 13 injections with no improvement.
He wanted to give the boy a lethal dose of the vaccination, as the last measure. If it failed, the boy would not live.
Could have reasoned- the girl died, the old man did not return, would have faced serious consequences.
Turns out, the dose worked, and the boy survived! Lives of other people were also saved, by Pasteur acting on his instinct.
When the teacher could
see and hear
the student scream, level of shock relayed (in the mind of the teacher) was low. Empathy levels were high.
When the teacher
could see him, but not hear
the student, the teacher was able to go further, yet not very far before quitting. All the while, the Authority figure would keep repeating, “It’s imperative the experiment go on.”
When the teacher
could hear them but not see
them, further still was gone.
However, when the teacher could
neither see nor hear
the impact of their decision based on trust, 65% of the teachers would have been able to hypothetically kill the ‘student’.

Intuition: the ability to understand something immediately, without the need for conscious reasoning.

There are three types of intuitions-
Ordinary intuition: the normal gut feeling.
Expert intuition: comes from special training and experience.
Strategic intuition

Over time, as you amass more and more information, your brain unconsciously organizes it into patterns, so, whenever we see a problem which fits into the pattern, then we use our intuitive skills. This process is completely unconscious.

The cognitive ability to acquire, retain and later retrieve information.
Refers to the state of 'feeling' that involves thoughts, physiological changes, and an outward expression of the interpretation.
Emotions fuel our drive in the acquisition of knowledge, helping us justify our beliefs.
6 primary emotions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust.
The active, selective and interpretative process of becoming conscious of the external world, by using our senses.

"All credibility, all good conscience, all evidence of truth come only from the senses."

Who would you choose to babysit your child?
Trust is both an emotional and logical act. Emotionally, it is where you expose your vulnerabilities to people, but believing they will not take advantage of your openness. Logically, it is where you have assessed the probabilities of gain and loss, calculating expected utility based on hard performance data, and concluded that the person in question will behave in a predictable manner.
What is Trust?
Fallacy of Memory: Reliability of Memory
We seem to erase the memory or alter it because we are haunted by it, so it can harm us emotionally.
Dealing with humanities, social sciences, and aspects of psychology and math, the Human Sciences concerns with the study of human behavior.
Natural Sciences is the branch of science which deals with the physical world, including physics, chemistry, biology, and geology.
Evidence
Study carried out at Northwestern University and Redeemer University College.
Highly trusting people tended to remember the transgressions in a way that benefits their relationship with their partner, making the offense less severe than it was actually reported to be.
People low on trust demonstrated the opposite: they remembered their partner's offense as more severe than it actually was.
Therefore, trust is good for relationships because it clouds our memory to a certain extent, and makes room for forgiveness.
Trusting a random website where there is a high risk of getting scammed.
Fallacy of Emotion
Deep distrust of emotion in the western world due to the view that emotions can “derail calm consideration of a line of reasoning”.

We need to handle emotions with care, as it can persuade us to conclusions that would generally be against our "better judgment". Various appeals that prove the unreliability of emotion:
Appeal to speaker or source:
Appeal to pity
Appeal to anxiety or fear
Appeal to belonging

A teenage boy named Ferdinand Waldo Demara Jr. was a deception artist.
Demara managed to pass himself off as a college psychology professor, a Catholic priest, a high school teacher, and even as a Canadian Royal Navy surgeon who was trusted to perform delicate operations
He had no qualifications for any of these jobs.
Besides high brazenness and intelligence his biggest asset was his appearance.
a rounded, youthful-looking face with a broad mouth and chin, large eyes, and eyebrows that were relatively close together.
Thus, FACIAL APPEARANCES and superficial characteristics led to trusting this con-artist.
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