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The Energy Crisis

A historical look at the energy crisis, new emerging alternatives, and the implications of forms of energy
by

Robert Carson

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of The Energy Crisis

History & Causes, Possible Solutions, and Implications The Energy Crisis What Caused the Energy Crisis? Solar. Using today's Sunlight -43% of electricity comes from buring fossil fuels.
-fossil fuels pollute and are growing more expensive.
-Fossil fuels can only be extracted and processed by large companies. Solar Power Solar power is a term that refers to any system that
pulls its energy from the heat and light in sunshine. Solar predictions Solar Power will be a major power source in ten years.

Falling costs and increased efficiency will make solar
power more economical than burning fossil fuels.

China will become the biggest producer of PV panels.

California will be the fastest growing market in the world.
Solar industry projected to grow at 20 to 40% per year for the next five years. Biofuel: Organic fuel Hydroelectricity History Nuclear Energy -Nuclear power is the use of sustained fission to generate heat and electricity.
-Is Nuclear Energy safe and reliable? The Future of Energy Oil Is not sustainable
Increase in awareness
New developing forms of energy will emerge
Move away from fossil fuels to cleaner and more sustainable or renewable sources Late 19th c. until 1980s... 1990's to Present Day Oil is the “product of the decayed remains of billions of sea creatures that grabbed sunlight out of the air and turned it into living tissue. It is the concentrated essence of many millions of years of ancient sunlight.”
In the late 19th century, kerosene was considered the most valuable fraction of crude oil.
Invention of the lightbulb, 1879
Rockefeller needed to find a way to keep demand for oil up. A decade later, cars emerged onto the scene. Big oil/automobile companies began a systematic takeover of trolley system, roads and highways.
Successfully lobbied the government. Late 19th c. until 1980s continued... By 1955, Americans owned 50 million cars.
At this time, America contained the second biggest oil reserves in the world (more oil in the U.S. than Iraq).
Ignored geologist's warnings Drilled in Pennsylvania, Texas, Oklahoma and slowly began to take advantage of reserves in Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East.
Creation of OPEC, 1960.
By the early 1970s, the U.S. was in a sticky situation. Late 19th c. until 1980s continued... 1973, Americans were forced to ration energy use.
Department of Energy formed, no gas sold on Sundays, fuel standards instituted on vehicles etc. Following the Iranian Hostage Crisis of 1979, President Carter claimed we would retain access to Middle Eastern oil using "any means necessary."
World leaders understood the importance of oil.
Western oil companies dedicated more resources and money.
Alaska, the North Sea heavily targeted. Some 20 million barrels of oil found in these regions.
By 1980, oil prices fell below the price of bottled water. Not surprisingly... We extracted so much oil, our supply was beginning to run out.
Consequences? $10 billion government debt, 300 million gallons of toxic, crude sludge at the bottom of the North Sea.
Global desire for oil steadily increasing, amount of global oil supply declining at dramatic rate. One alternative people are turning to is SOLAR POWER But what is solar power exactly? There are two main types of Solar. Photovoltaic Thermal Photovoltiac systems take
sunshine and convert it into
electricity.
EX: solar panels Solar heating is used to
replace or offset heating costs by taking advantage of the sun's heat.
EX: Solar water heater Advantages Solar power is sustainable and environmentally friendly Solar production can be done anywhere theres Sunshine.
Makes you less reliant on large Power Companies Buisnesses and households can actually save money in the long run by installing Solar systems. Solar can be used anywhere, so remote or unindustrialized communities can access electricity. But its not all smooth sailing Current problems Solar power systems are still expensive. Solar efficiency is reliant on the weather.
"No sun, No fun" Utilities companies are fighting back
trying to keep solar from cutting down
their buisness model. Biofuels are fuels that are obtained from any biomass. Pros of Nuclear Energy -virtually zero greenhouse gas emission.
-low operating cost.
-nuclear waste can be reduced through reprocessing.
-higher energy capacity than other alternative energy sources Cons of Nuclear Energy -High construction costs.
-High risk accidents.
-Radioactive waste.
-Large infrastructure, investments, and coordination.
-Uranium is just as finite as other fuel sources.
-Uranium waste can last from 200-500 thousand years. History of Nuclear Energy Three different Biofuels: -Nuclear Energy was first used to create weapons.
-Nuclear Energy was only used to produce electricity after World War II. -Biodiesel
-Bioalcohols
-Biogases The Effects of Nuclear Disasters -Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and the recent Fukushima Daiichi are examples of nuclear disasters.
-Since the Fukushima Disaster worldwide nuclear power output has fallen 4.3%. Biodiesel The Future of Nuclear Energy Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors Biodiesel is currently the best alternative to the usual diesel fuel and it can be mixed into regular diesel to improve engine performance. -Does not require water coolers.
-Thorium reactors are not operated using high pressure.
-The energy released from Thorium is 70 times greater than Uranium.
-Thorium is 4 times more common than Uranium. Many vehicle manufacturers now recommend using a mixture of 5% biodiesel with regular diesel. Bioalcohols Bioalcohols are made by certain actions from bacterium Butonal- A powerful biofuel that can be used as a direct replacement to gasoline (Not common yet). Ethanol- The most common biofuel in the world and is already used in combination with gasoline to improve engine performance. More corn used in ethanol production than food production. Ancient Romans
Greeks
1st power plant
The New Deal and the TVA
84,000 dams in United States
Three Gorges Dam
Controversy Biogases 33% of the world's electricity Biogases are made by actions from certain anaerobic bacteria. What is hydro power? Methane- The most common biogas and the solid byproduct from methane production can be used as a fertilizer. PROS CONS Biofuels are an abundant and renewable energy source. Biofuels are cheaper than fossil fuels. Biofuels are better for engine performance than fossil fuels. Positives Biofuels cannot fully replace fossil fuel use. Some vehicles cannot use biofuels. The Future of Biofuels natural resource
recreational spaces
minimal pollution
reduces greenhouse emissions
low maintenance costs Negatives high investment costs
relocation of families
destroys fisheries
changes of habitats
earthquakes
transmission losses
silt Future Projections? But,
There are
Alternatives 1990 Oil Shock Iraqi Invasion of Kuait
Over 100% increase in the cost of oil
$17- $46 per Barrel
Federal Reserve feared massive inflation and recession
US lead a military intervention
over 140 US soldiers were killed and many more Iraqis California Energy Crisis 200-2001 Surge in energy prices as a result of energy corporation de-regulation
Market Manipulations
Supply was Greater than demand, so producers manipulated the market to close the demand gap
800% increase in energy during crisis Energy Costs have steadily Increased since 2003 2003 Oil: $25/ Barrel 2008 Oil: $140/ Barrel Falling Value of the US dollar
Depletion of Petrolium Reserves (2021-2040) without a change
Political Tensions and Uncertainties
Natural Disasters
Market Speculation
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