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Chemical Constituents of Cells

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Sarah Rodney

on 12 May 2016

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Transcript of Chemical Constituents of Cells

Chemical Constituents of Cells
Organic and Inorganic
Organic - include carbon and hydrogen
Many have long chains because carbon can have 4bonds
If they can dissolve in water they do not release ions - nonelectrolytes
Inorganic - everything else!
Dissociate in water - electrolytes
Provide fuel for our bodies by providing much of the energy the cells require
Supply materials to build certain cell structures
Stored as reserve energy supplies
Water-soluble containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Usually ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 1:2:1, C6H12O6(glucose)
Inorganic Substances
Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic salts
Water - 2/3 of weight and a major component of blood and body fluids
Oxygen - enters through respiration and transported through blood - organelles use oxygen to release from nutrient molecules
CO2 - waste product, most reacts with water to form a weak acid (carbonic acid, H2CO3) - respiratory system - reverse rxn - exhale
Salts - abundant is body fluids
Electrolyte balance - presence of certain concentrations of ions inside and outside cells for homeostasis
carbs, fat, protein oh my!
....nucleic acid...I guess
Nucleic Acid
Simple Carbs
Monosaccharides(one sugar)
3-7 carbons either a straight chain or ring
Disaccharides(two sugars)
Complex Carb
Polysaccharides - build of many simple carbohydrates
Cellulose - many glucose molecules and in plants not easily digested by us
Starch - highly branched chains of glucose molecules connected differently
Animals and humans synthesize these and are similar to starch
Stored in liver and skeletal muscles
Highly branched sugar units of glucose
Secondary long-term energy store -fats are the first
Lipids!! nom nom nom
A group of organic chemicals that are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents (ether and chloroform)
Fats, phospholipids and steroids - vital functions in cells and important constituents in cell membranes
Supply more energy gram for gram than carbs
Composed of C, H, and O
Small proportion of Oxygen than carbs
Tristearin - C57H110O6
Building blocks are fatty acids and glycerol
Glycerol is always the same, but different kinds of fats
Fatty acids
All contain carboxyl group at the end of a carbon chain
Differ in length - tend to be even numbers
Differ in C-bonds
Fatty Acids cont.
Saturated - all carbons have single bonds (saturated H bonds)
Unsaturated - one or more C double bonds
One double bond = monounsaturated fatty acid
Two or more = polyunsaturated fatty acid
Fat videos OOOOoooOO
Similar to fat, but instead of a third fatty acid chain it has a phosphate group
Phosphate group - water soluble(hydrophilic) and forms the "head" of the molecule
The fatty acid portion is hydrophobic
Complex structures that include four connecting rings of carbon atoms
Widely distributed in the body with a variety of functions: cholesterol, sex hormones, and certain hormones of the adrenal glands
Structural materials, energy sources, and chemical messengers(hormones)
Glycoproteins - bind crabs and function as receptors on cell surfaces
Antibody proteins - recognize and destroy substances that are foreign to the body
Hemoglobin and myoglobin transport oxygen in blood and muscles respectively
Actin and myosin - contractile proteins providing muscle action
Proteins cont.
Enzymes - vital in metabolism and are catalysts
Speed up specific chemical reactions without being consumed
20 kinds of essential amino acids
Amino group (-NH2) and carboxyl group (-COOH)
Between group is Carbon and a side chain(R-group)
Complex 3D shapes - conformations
Connected by peptide bonds - covalent bonds that connect the two ends
Primary - amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain - range from fewer than 100 to more than 5,000 AA.
Secondary - alpha coil = spring-like, beta-pleated sheets = folds back and forth on itself
Due to hydrogen bonds
Tertiary - hydrogen bonding and even covalent bonding between atoms in different parts of a polypeptide
All together contributes to structure and function
Proteins cont.
denature - secondary and tertiary structures fall apart
Sometimes can return to normal in certain conditions
Albumin to heat
curling hair
Quaternary - several polypeptide chains connected making a very large protein
Carry instructions that control a cell's activities by encoding AA sequences of proteins in its building blocks
The large NA include C, H, O, N, and P that form building blocks called nucleotides
Consists of a 5-carbon sugar(ribose or deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and one of several nitrogenous bases
If linked in a chain = polynucleotide
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - deoxyribose sugar and is a double polynucleotide chain wound into a double helix
Store information for protein synthesis
Replicate themselves prior to cell devision
RNA (ribonucleic acid) - nucleotides with ribose sugar - single polynucleotide chain
Use info from DNA to construct different protein molecules
Differ by an oxygen atom
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