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Major Religions of the World

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Tara Plank

on 21 February 2018

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Transcript of Major Religions of the World

Major Religions of the World
Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Islam
Developed:
Canaan
Sacred Text:
Torah (Old Testament in Christianity.
Founder:
Abraham
Important People:

-Moses: Led the Israelites out of slavery from the Egyptians.
-David: United the tribes, established Jerusalem as the capital, founded the dynasty.
-Solomon: Built a temple which was home to the Arc of the Covenant, whch contained the tablets of Moses' law.
Covenant with Abraham:
If Abraham left Mesopotamia and abandoned Polytheism, God would lead him and his descendants to the Promise Land.
Ten Commandments:
Basis of civil and religious laws in Judaism.
Divided Kingdom:
Divided after the death of Solomon (922 B.C.)
1) Israel: North (eventually destroyed)
2) Judah: South (remained after the fall of the North. As a result, Israelites began to be called Jews, and their religion Judaism)
Judaism (1300 B.C.)
Developed:
India
Sacred Text:
1st century B.C.
Founder:
Siddhartha Gautama "Buddha"
Important People:
Sangha:

Religious community (first made up of monks and nuns)
Four Noble Truths:
1. Suffering is a part of human life.
2. Suffering comes from peoples desire for pleasure and material goods.
3. Overcoming these desires brings suffering to an end.
4. Desires can be overcome by following the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path:
Steps that lead one to enlightenment and salvation. Set up like a staircase, must complete one before going to the next.Took many lifetimes.
Nirvana:
State of perfect peace in which the soul would be free from suffering and pain.
What allowed Buddhism to reach far and wide?
Trade
Buddhism (623 B.C.)
Developed:
India
Sacred Texts:
Upanishads: Dialogue and discussion between student and teacher over how a person can achieve liberation from pain and suffering.
Founder:
No founder; developed over time.
Brahman:
Soul-Personality of 3 gods
1. Brahma- Creator
2. Vishnu-Protector
3. Shiva-Destroyer
Moksha:
Escape from the cycle of rebirth.
Reincarnation:
Rebirth of Atman.
Karma:
Sum of persons actions (good and bad) which helps shape future experiences.
Yoga:
Teaches people how to focus on their body and minds, which will aid in their meditation.
What religions came out of Hinduism?
Jainism and Buddhism
Hinduism (1000 B.C.)
Developed:
Jerusalem
Sacred Text:
Bible
Founder:

Jesus of Nazareth: Born 6-4 B.C. Jewish Carpenter
Important People:

-12 Apostles: Wrote down the Gospels.
-Paul of Tarsus: Spread and interpreted Christianity throughout Roman Empire.
-Constantine: Made Christianity legal in the Roman Empire.
-Peter: First Bishop in Rome, First Pope.
Death and Resurrection:
Jesus was seen as a political threat and was crucified in 32 A.D., as scriptures go he rose from the dead, and after 40 days ascended into heaven.
Missions:
Spread of Christianity through the work of Paul and the Apostles.
Jewish Diaspora:
Jews were driven from their homeland after trying to break free from Roman Empire.
What do you believe allowed Christianity to spread so quickly and so far?
Pax Romana and Roman roads
Christianity (32 A.D.)
Islam (622 A.D.)
Developed:
Mecca
Religious Text:
Qur'an
Founder:
Muhammad
Important People:
Allah
5 Pillars of Islam:
Five acts of worship
1. Profession of faith
2. 5 daily prayers
3. Giving alms
4. Fasting
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca:
city in western Arabia where Islam began.
Islam:
Submission to the will of Allah.
Muslim:
One who has submitted.
Hijrah:
Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina.
Shari'a:
Body of law governing the lives of Muslims.
Caliph:
Successor or Deputy
Sunni:
Branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first 4 caliphs as the rightful successor of Muhammad.
Shi'a:
Branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendents as the rightful successors of Muhammad.
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