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Tuberculosis

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by

Maddie Brandt

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis
Genome Size
Genome sequenced in 1998
Circular chromosomes
4,200,000 nucleotides long (base pairs)
Contains 3959 genes
8% code for lipid metabolism
Treatment
Difficult to treat
Multiple antibiotics are used at once
This targets the bacteria in different ways
Less likely bacteria will develop resistance
TB Facts
Scientific Name: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Mycobacteriaceae Family
Discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch
Earned Nobel Prize in Medicine
Leading cause of death from bacterial infectious disease
As many as 2 billion people infected by tuberculosis
1.5 million die each year
Host Range
Primarily a pathogen in mammalian respiratory systems
Mycobacterium Bovis:
Cattle
Badgers
Deer
Goats
Pigs
Some strains adapted to infect humans specifically
Symptoms
Bad cough lasting 3+ weeks
chest pain
coughing up blood/sputum
dyspnea (shortness of breath)
weakness/fatigue
weight loss
no appetite
chills
fever
night sweats
Bacterial Structure
Small bacillus bacteria (rod-shaped)
Withstands weak disinfectants
Slow growth rate due to tough cell wall
Cell wall prevents passage of nutrients into cell
Unusual waxy coating on cell surface made of mycolic acids
Long fatty acids found in cell walls of bacteria
Doesn't allow fluid to pass through cell walls
Lack outer membrane, classifying it as acid-fast
Gram positive
Cannot be gram stained as mycolic acids prevent fluids from going through the cell wall
By: Kaylee Gutschow and Maddie Brandt
Drugs used in Tuberculosis Treatment
Isoniazid:
Prevents formation of mycolic acids
Needed to form bacterial walls
Interferes with cell metabolism
Rifamycins:
Binds to RNA polymerase
Acts as wall, blocking RNA from elongating
Long Term Effects
Lung damage
collapsed lung
Other organ damage
liver especially
Joint damage
abscesses
swelling
arthritis
Eye problems
swelling in retina
Death
5% fatality rate
Time until death varies by person
TB Infection
Latent and Active Tuberculosis
Two Categories:
Pulmonary
Extrapulmonary
Pulmonary
Primary Tuberculosis Pneumonia
Uncommon and very infectious
Tuberculosis Pleurisy
Granuloma at edge of lung ruptures into pleural space
Liquid can be found in pleural space
When bacteria invades this space fluid increases and lung compresses
Cavitary Tuberculosis
Forms cavities (enlarged air spaces) in upper lobes of the lung
Miliary Tuberculosis
Disseminated TB
Small nodules on lungs
Extremely dangerous
Laryngeal Tuberculosis
Infects larynx and vocal cord area
Spread of Tuberculosis
Airborne
Only active tuberculosis disease cases can spread infection
Transmitted by:
Coughing
Sneezing
Talking
Contact w/ contaminated surfaces
Incubation period: 2-12 weeks
Immune Response:
Failed Response: Active Tuberculosis
Granulomas
TB Tests
Vaccine
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
Live, weakened Mycobacterium Bovis bacteria
Bibliography
http://www.immunizationinfo.org/vaccines/tuberculosis
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/infections/medicines/isoniazid.html#ixzz2sHwHkPlX
http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/default.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/tbdisease.htm
http://newswire.rockefeller.edu/2008/08/19/rifamycin-antibiotics-attack-tuberculosis-bacteria-with-walls-not-signals/
http://www.everydayhealth.com/tuberculosis/death-from-a-preventable-disease.aspx
http://www.everydayhealth.com/tuberculosis/complications.aspx
http://textbookofbacteriology.net/tuberculosis.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_tuberculosis
http://www.vanderbilt.edu/HRS/wellness/OHC/ohctb.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19584488
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/rxforsurvival/series/diseases/tuberculosis.html
Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test
Inject purified M. Tuberculosis proteins (tuberculin) into arm
Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRA)
Measures immune system reaction to tuberculosis bacteria
Tests blood in laboratory
Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis
Lymph Node Disease
Uncontrolled replication
Enlarged lymph node
Can develop passageway to skin
Tuberculosis Peritonitis
Outer lining of intestines/abdominal wall
Abdominal distention
Tuberculosis Pericarditis
Space between pericardium (heart membrane) and heart fills with fluid
Osteal Tuberculosis
Infection in bones
Most common in spine
Renal Tuberculosis
White blood cells in urine
Can affect reproductive organs
Adrenal Tuberculosis
Adrenal gland insufficiency
Tuberculosis Meningitis
Affects meninges (brain/spinal cord membrane)
Leads to permanent impairment and death
Normal Lungs
Tuberculosis Lungs
Full transcript