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Australia and Indonesia

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Sofia Eriksson

on 8 December 2015

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Transcript of Australia and Indonesia

Australia & Indonesia
designed by Péter Puklus for Prezi
Before the 20th century
From at least the early 1700s, and perhaps even earlier, Fishermen from Macassar (the southwestern part of Sulawesi) visited the northern cost of Australia, harvesting sea slugs from the waters around Arnhem land.
Australia and the Indonesian independence
During WWII, the Netherlands sided with Britain, France, the US, Australia and Russia against Germany, Italy and Japan
Suharto - easier for Australians to deal with
East Timor 1975-1990
Since 2000:
The Corby case, the Cape York crisis, the spying scandal, operation sovereign borders...
Lecture 9:
What do you know about Indonesia?
the very small
Homo Floresiensis
,
the taller
Homo Erectus

and the anatomically modern human
Homo Sapiens
- The name "Indonesia" means something like "The Indian Islands" in Greek.
- 13.466 islands make up Indonesia, and many of these have been inhabited by the human species for 1.5 million years.
- The area we today call Indonesia has been populated by no less than three different kinds of humans:
Indonesia is:
- The fourth largest country in the world by population (after China, India and the US)
- Diverse: over 300 distinct ethnic groups - Javanese, Sundanese, Malays, Madurese, Chinese - and over 700 languages.
- Religious freedom is guaranteed by the Indonesian constitution, and the majority religion is Islam (just over 87%).
The local Aboriginal people, the Yolngu, traded with them, and communicated with them, and negotiated deals for the fishermen to access the shores of their land.
This trade continued well into the colonial era, when the settler governments began to regulate the trepang industry.
The last Macassan to continue the tradition was
Using Daend Rangka
.
In 1883 he was the first fisherman to obtain a license from the South Australian government, but in 1907 he transported his final load of trepang back to Macassar, and retired.
The licenses and customs imposed by the Australian government, as well as over fishing, made trepang fishing unprofitable.
While the Macassan trepang industry has ceased, other Indonesian fishermen continued to ply their trade in the waters they fished for centuries - waters that were gradually becoming integrated in the emerging Australian nation state.
This has led to a great deal of conflict, as Australian governments attempt to claim sovereignty over territories that have been used by neighbouring peoples for countless generations.
An agreement in 1974 guaranteed the right of fishermen from Indonesia to continue their traditional trade (often in boats that have been used and inherited for hundreds of years)
But the problem with this is that it isn't all that easy to define "traditional"...
Plantation industries in the North
In the 1870s:
As white colonisers pushed further into Queensland and far north of Australia they introduced European ways of exploiting the resources of the area, and developed sugar cane plantations and a pearling industry.
People in the 19th century thought that white people -Europeans - couldn't do manual labour in hot climates, so all these industries had to find non-white workers
Many of these workers came as indentured labourers from Vanuatu or other pacific islands, but a smaller number were from Indonesia.
This became a source of conflict between Queensland and the other states as Federation drew closer: Queenslanders wanted to keep their coloured workforce, while the other states wanted a white Australia.
History #2
History #1
Most of the ethnic groups that dominate the islands today arrived about 4000 years ago from the north.
The area soon became known for its spice export, with nutmeg, pepper etc. travelling to Asia and Europe via medieval trade networks.
Islam arrived with Muslim traders from the 13th century, Europeans came in the 16th.
It was the Dutch that gained control over the area, and named it "Dutch East India" - essentially
making
a country out of lots of separate islands by colonising it.
During WWII, Japan occupied the Dutch East Indian colony. When they lost, the Dutch imperial government tried to regain control of the country, but their colonial subjects had begun rallying around the idea of the Indonesian nation and demanded to become independent.
35.000 BC
2000 BC
1000 AD
1200 AD
1500 AD
1945
1949
1968
Indonesia became independent, with the communist leaning Prime Minister Sukarno as the leader
In 1960s saw growing tensions between the communists loyal to Sukarno, and the Indonesian military forces. General Suharto was the leader of the army, and he overthrew Sukarno in 1967, and became the second prime minister of Indonesia in 1968.
Suharto became increasingly unpopular throughout the 80s and 90s, and resigned in 1998. since then Indonesia has had four Prime Minister, one of which was female.
The current PM is Joko Widodo
Get a piece of paper:
1. Write your name on the top, and the topic: Indonesia and Australia.
2. Write what you know about this in one column.
3. Write what you want to know in the next column.
I will collect these at the end, and this will be the attendance record
1. Crash course in Indonesian history.
3. Colonial Australia and the Dutch East Indies
4. Australia and the Indonesian nation state
Lecture overview
Eventually those who wanted a white Australia won: with federation and the Immigration restriction act of 1901, all non-white indonesians (and other non-white labourers) had to leave.
This meant that Indonesia became a target for Japanese imperial expansion and military aggression.
While Dutch East India was occupied by Japan, the people there began to get fed up with begin governed by colonising powers, whether Japanese or Dutch.
The population started organising anti-colonial resistance movements demanding
National sovereignty
and
self-government
.
the Cold War, remember:
The USSR and the US fought together against Hitler. But as soon as their common enemy disappeared they began fighting each other - not with directly, but by threatening each other with atomic weapons, and persuading/bullying other states to join their own side (east bloc vs. west bloc)
Australia joined the US side in the Cold War: the west bloc, and subscribed to the "domino theory": if one Asian country became communist all other would follow, and eventually invade Australia.
A communist leaning prime minister in Indonesia was clearly not a happy sign in this situation.
But after a couple of years the Australian government recognised the Sukarno regime anyway, and sided with the Indonesians who were fighting for Independence when the Dutch imperial power launched a military offensive to try to maintain control over the country.
Indonesian independence did not come peacefully: in 1948 the Dutch launched a military operation to maintain power.
Many people in the world thought this was pretty stupid: the days of colonialism were coming to an end, and it was becoming very difficult to justify why the Dutch should get to decide what a bunch of people in the Pacific could and couldn't do.
Many Australians sympathised with Indonesian nationalists: ex. many trade unions. The workers in Australian ports, for example example, would ban Dutch ships and prevent them from reloading in Australian ports.
The result was that the Australian/Indonesia relationship was
ambivalent
from the very start of indonesia's existence...
It was also the Australian government that referred the conflict between the indonesian freedom fighters and the Dutch colonisers to the un, and the named the Netherlands as the violators of the peace.
The un called a cease fire and organised a committee to try to negotiate an agreement, and the indonesian representatives invited the Australian government to participated in the negotiations
Following six months of negotiation in 1949 (and a lot of international pressure) the Netherlands agreed to recognise Indonesia, and leave the new state alone.
Prime Minister Sukarno proclaiming Indonesian independence
Sukarno & Menzies
1949-1966
In 1949, just as the new Indonesian nation state under Sukarno began to find its legs, there was a shift of power in Australia: the Labour government under Chiefly was replaced by a conservative on under Menzies. This meant a shift in how Australia interacted with Indonesia, since the conservatives had been pro-Dutch: they disliked that the area had been decolonised.
Finally, they were very annoyed when the Indonesian government began making claims to the part of New Guinea that had belonged to the Netherlands (called Irian Barat in Indonesian).
Menzies and his supporters were very worried about Sukarno's refusal to take a stand against communism (remember the domino theory?)
The dispute over Irian Barat:
Sukarno made a claim to the western part of the island New Guinea, which freaked out the Australian government:
1. They would have to share a border with Indonesia.
2. It suggested that Indonesia might want the rest of the island as well...
In 1963 territory became administered by Indonesia, and in 1969 part of it.
Tensions #1
Tensions #2: Konfrontasi (1963-66)
Sukarno was becoming increasingly fixated with the idea that Indonesia had a mission to stand up against the former colonial powers, and resist any of their attempts at shaping the post-colonial world
One aspect of this was his hatred for Malaysia: a country formed by Britain so that they could withdraw from the region.
Between 63 and 66 Indonesia carried on a low level border raids into Malaysia, an operation called "Konfrontasi".
Britain called upon Australian troops to help Malaysia, which put the Australian government in a tricky position: either Britain or Indonesia would be annoyed at them.
Tricky!
The Australian government solved the problem by being a bit vague on the particulars: training indonesia military officers in australia, while also supporting the malaysians
Sukarnos rule became increasingly tenuous:
- his health was failing
- the economy was terrible
- the military disliked his cooperation with the communists
- the communists disliked his cooperation with the military
In 1968, the military - led by its general Suharto - took over the country, and a new era began.
General Suharto was staunchly anti-communist, something that made him more popular in the eyes of western governments.
The significance of Australia to Indonesia is firstly demonstrated by the existence of a maritime boundary between the two countries. Both countries have been concerned to definitively delimit that boundary for the purpose of protecting fisheries from encroachment, and determining the limits of responsibility for vessels found in that area. The significance of Australia to Indonesia is less than that of its ASEAN co-members, particularly its close neighbours in the Philippines and Malaysia. Indonesia's highest trade volumes are with Japan, the USA, Singapore, Germany and Saudi Arabia.


In January 2005, Prime Minister Howard and President Yudhoyono announced the formation of the Australia-Indonesia Partnership for Reconstruction and Development (AIPRD) under which Australia will contribute $1 billion over five years towards reconstruction and development in Aceh and elsewhere in Indonesia. All funds have now been allocated to projects.
Both nations are members of APEC and the East Asia Summit.
A total of 92 Australians died as a result of the Bali bombings in 2002 and 2005 in Indonesia.


Indonesian-australian partnerships

Patterns emerging:
Indonesia is often irrationally suspicious of us, accusing us of interfering in Indonesian affairs and is overly sensitive to criticisms.
There is often a wide gap between the position Australian governments take with respect to Indonesia and popular sentiment.
Partly because of the pressure of public opinion, Australia seems inconsistent in policy towards Indonesia.
For instance, asylum seekers seems a big issues to Australians but is profoundly trivial to Indonesia.
Ambivalence:
Indonesia arouses our Asian invasion fears because of its proximity and large population, and Indonesia is seen as a threat because of its large Muslim population.
But for other Australians, Indonesia is our most important regional friend; it is our bridge to Asia and a place of business opportunities and a regular tourist destination.

But AN AMBIVALENT RELATIONSHIP?

In December 1998 Howard, responsive to Australian domestic pressure wrote to President B. J. Habibie proposing a vote on independence for East Timor. Habibie was an Islamicist and didn’t really care about East Timor, so responded favourably.
The UN organised act of self-determination of August 1999 was followed by the organised chaos of pro-Indonesian militias. The Indonesian army resented the vote for independence.
INTERFET (International Force in East Timor) organised under Australian leadership in September 1999 to restore order. In addition to sending 5,500 troops, Australia persuades four ASEAN countries to be involved: Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. Effectively Australia invaded Indonesia, but also solved a problem for Indonesia with ASEAN and US support.
East Timor under UN administration from September 1999 and independent at last in May 2002.
Independent East Timor

Australian government would have preferred East Timor to remain part of Indonesia if only the Indonesians could have won the East Timorese over, but rebellion was constant.
Falintil (the East Timorese guerilla movement) was defeated in 1990 with the capture of its leader Xanana Gusmão. In prison in Jakarta, Gusmão was able to reach a wider international audience than he ever had in the mountains of East Timor.
Santa Cruz massacre in Dili in 1991 returned East Timor to world attention, as it was recorded and broadcast.
Keating and Suharto’s close personal relations culminate in the Indonesia – Australia security treaty of December 1995. John Howard uninterested and the treaty was abrogated by Indonesia in September 1999.
Suharto resigned in May 1998 following the economic collapse of 1997 (the ‘currency crisis’ triggered by the fall of the Thai baht and the Korean won leading to the rupiah crashing).



The East Timor issue, 1990-1999

The Legacy: dictator to many, but often appreciated by the west
The Threat

As President, Sukarno is charismatic, anti-imperialist and increasingly frustrated with Indonesia’s crisis-ridden parliaments.

With the collapse of constitutional democracy, Sukarno establishes Guided Democracy (1957-65) but needs to balance two contending political forces:
1. the army
2. the PKI (the communist party)

Australia fears:
1. the rise of a communist Indonesia
2. Sukarno’s pan-Indonesian vision to include the entire
Malay world



Indonesia's strategic significance to Australia is revealed by the circumstance that 60% of Australia's exports pass by its Northern approaches. Indonesia is also the most populous country neighbouring Australia, and is nearer by landfall to Australia than all countries excluding Papua New Guinea. Ahead of Indonesia, Australia's favoured trading partners include China, Japan, the US, New Zealand, South Korea, the UK, Taiwan, Singapore, and India.

Strategic significance

In 1994, the then Prime Minister Paul Keating said:
"No country is more important to Australia than Indonesia. If we fail to get this relationship right, and nurture and develop it, the whole web of our foreign relations is incomplete [and] ... the emergence of the New Order government of President Suharto, and the stability and prosperity which [it] has brought to [Indonesia] was the single most beneficial strategic development to have affected Australia and its region in the past thirty years. We need to encourage the use of popular media with positive input [such as] "Why can't we be friends? Why can't we be friends? Why can't we be friends? Why can't we be friends?" [this is] the exact sort of opinions we need".


The importance of indonesia

Indonesia believed it had a ‘green light’ from the US and Australia (which feared communism in former Portuguese colonies) to absorb East Timor in 1975, following Suharto’s discussions with Whitlam and Kissinger. Saigon had fallen that April, so fear of communism in SEA was acute.
Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor in 1975 was a disaster: unnecessarily violent (little winning of hearts and minds) and followed by 15 years of guerilla resistance by the Timorese.
The Indonesians keenest on incorporation of East Timor were Catholics – East Timor is the only majority Catholic province Indonesia has ever had. L.B. (Benny )Murdani (Suharto’s defence minister) was the strongest advocate.
Australia recognised Indonesia’s takeover (de facto recognition in 1978 and de jure in 1979). The Timor Gap Treaty signed in 1989 for joint exploitation of oil and natural gas was a very good deal for Australia and its reward from Indonesia.

The East Timor issue, 1975-1990

THE opportunist

Australia welcomed the military takeover in Indonesia following the abortive coup of 30 September 1965 (Gestapu). The PKI is crushed and General Suharto assumes power in 1966.
In the late 1960s Australia played a major role helping Indonesia to re-schedule debts; trade relations and aid initiatives increase.
Positives:
Rapid economic growth (‘tiger economy’ status)
Political stability
Negatives:
Authoritarian rule
Human rights abuses
Corruption of ruling elite
East Timor issue

Australia’s relations with Suharto’s ‘new order’ government 1966-1998

In Australia a pro-Indonesia campaign is launched by the trade unions and sympathisers.
Australia plays a key role in securing the settlement whereby the Netherlands finally agrees to transfer sovereignty to Indonesia.
Federated Republic of the United States of Indonesia emerges in 1949; later replaced by the unitary Republic of Indonesia (1950).
Australia and India sponsor Indonesia’s admission to the UN in 1950.
Illustration: Simon Letch. SMH 9 March 2010: Former PM Kevin Rudd and current President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) of Indonesia.

Since 2000 bilateral relations based on:
increasingly shared democratic and economic values;
development of political, security, commercial, cultural and people-to-people links.
The 12 October 2002 Bali bombing was a shared tragedy for both countries (out of 202 dead, 88 were Australians and 38 Indonesians) and has promoted closer cultural and emotional links.
Lombok Treaty (2006) promotes bilateral cooperation and exchanges on security, which the Jakarta and Bali bombings (2002-5) showed were matters of common concern.




Today: Strengthening ties

‘President Sukarno and India’s first Prime Minister Jawahalal Nehru in Jakarta in 1950. Note that there’s still a Dutch police officer (left) helping with crowd control.

A key strategic factor is Indonesia’s crucial geographical location, between Australia and continental S.E. Asia.
Australia believes any serious threat to Australia would come from or through the Indonesian archipelago.
Suharto and former PM Paul Keating at the APEC conference in 1994. Photo: Mike Bowers


Suharto and Richard Nixon in July 1969; the first visit by an American president to Indonesia.

The Good Friend

With his wife Ratna Sari Dewi Sukarno and the Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai
The NEI government was based in Brisbane 1942-1945, and Australian troops took the Japanese surrender in much of Eastern Indonesia.
Initially, Australia (like the Dutch) did not recognise Indonesia’s declaration of independence by Sukarno on 17 August 1945.
Dutch attempts to assume control over their former colony were widely criticised. The brutality of the second ‘police action’ (war in reality) in 1948 drove Australia to support Indonesian independence.
‘Workers of the World Unite’: Sukarno Addressing May Day Rally in Jakarta
Prime Minister Sukarno was an international statesman and an ardent anti-imperialist.
With John F. Kennedy
With Marilyn Monroe
it was important for him that Indonesia remain truly independent from western control.
for sukarno the cold war struggle between the US and the ussr, and the pressure for smaller, formerly colonised states to take sides, reeked of a new form of control - even more insidious than straight out colonisation.
As a result, he refused to take sides, and with like minded statesmen developed the idea of the "non-aligned" nations: those who were neutral in the cold war.
Suharto implemented a policy called "The New Order", in which the military played a large role in controlling the country.
Rapid economic growth ("tiger economy")
Political stability

Authoritarian rule
Human rights abuses
Corruption of ruling elite
East Timor
Issues
Good things
The Indonesians keenest on incorporation of East Timor were Catholics – East Timor is the only majority Catholic province Indonesia has ever had. L.B. (Benny )Murdani (Suharto’s defence minister) was the strongest advocate.
Suharto believed Indonesia had a ‘green light’ from the US and Australia (which feared communism in former Portuguese colonies) to absorb East Timor in 1975, following his’s discussions with Whitlam and Kissinger. Saigon had fallen that April, and fear of communism in SEA was acute.
Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor in 1975 was a disaster: unnecessarily violent (little winning of hearts and minds) and followed by 15 years of guerilla resistance by the Timorese.
Australia recognised Indonesia’s takeover (de facto recognition in 1978 and de jure in 1979). The Timor Gap Treaty signed in 1989 for joint exploitation of oil and natural gas was a very good deal for Australia and its reward from Indonesia.
East Timor 1990-1999
Australian government would have preferred East Timor to remain part of Indonesia if only the Indonesians could have won the East Timorese over, but rebellion was constant.
Falintil (the East Timorese guerilla movement) was defeated in 1990 with the capture of its leader Xanana Gusmão. In prison in Jakarta, Gusmão was able to reach a wider international audience than he ever had in the mountains of East Timor.
Santa Cruz massacre in Dili in 1991 returned East Timor to world attention, as it was recorded and broadcast.
Keating and Suharto’s close personal relations culminate in the Indonesia/Australia security treaty of December 1995. John Howard was uninterested and the treaty was abrogated by Indonesia in September 1999.
Suharto resigned in May 1998 following the economic collapse of 1997 (the ‘currency crisis’ triggered by the fall of the Thai baht and the Korean won leading to the rupiah crashing).

Since 2000 the two governments have developed relations based on:
increasingly shared democratic and economic values;
development of political, security, commercial, cultural and people-to-people links.
Both nations are members of APEC and the East Asia Summit
In January 2005, Prime Minister Howard and President Yudhoyono announced the formation of the Australia-Indonesia Partnership for Reconstruction and Development (AIPRD) under which Australia will contribute $1 billion over five years towards reconstruction and development in Aceh and elsewhere in Indonesia. All funds have now been allocated to projects.

The 12 October 2002 Bali bombing was a shared tragedy for both countries (out of 202 dead, 88 were Australians and 38 Indonesians) and has promoted closer cultural and emotional links.
The Lombok Treaty (2006) promotes bilateral cooperation and exchanges on security, which the Jakarta and Bali bombings (2002-5) showed were matters of common concern.
Closer ties...
And ongoing conflicts...
In 1994, the then Prime Minister Paul Keating said:
- 60% of Australia's exports pass by its Northern approaches.
-Indonesia is also the most populous country neighbouring Australia
- It is nearer by landfall to Australia than all countries apart from Papua New Guinea.
"No country is more important to Australia than Indonesia. If we fail to get this relationship right, and nurture and develop it, the whole web of our foreign relations is incomplete [and] ... the emergence of the New Order government of President Suharto, and the stability and prosperity which [it] has brought to [Indonesia] was the single most beneficial strategic development to have affected Australia and its region in the past thirty years. We need to encourage the use of popular media with positive input [such as] "Why can't we be friends? Why can't we be friends? Why can't we be friends? Why can't we be friends?" [this is] the exact sort of opinions we need".
Patterns emerging:
Indonesia is often irrationally suspicious of us, accusing us of interfering in Indonesian affairs and is overly sensitive to criticisms.
There is often a wide gap between the position Australian governments take with respect to Indonesia and popular sentiment.
Partly because of the pressure of public opinion, Australia seems inconsistent in policy towards Indonesia.
For instance, asylum seekers seems a big issues to Australians but is profoundly trivial to Indonesia.
Ambivalence:
Indonesia arouses our Asian invasion fears because of its proximity and large population, and Indonesia is seen as a threat because of its large Muslim population.
But for other Australians, Indonesia is our most important regional friend; it is our bridge to Asia and a place of business opportunities and a regular tourist destination.

Conclusion:
Skip to slide 21...
Timor Gap Treaty
1989
Treaty between Australia and the Republic of Indonesia on the zone of cooperation in an area between the Indonesian province of East Timor and Northern Australia
Recap.....
Reading....three groups: one section each...
Full transcript