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17.3 Luther Leads the Reformation

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Sherifa Amin

on 25 October 2014

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Transcript of 17.3 Luther Leads the Reformation

4. Germany at War
3. The Peasants' Revolt
Luther's ideas spreading in Europe Pope saw him as a threat Pope Leo X threatened Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statements Luther did not take back a word; he threw the pope's decree into fire Pope Leo excommunicated Luther.
Responses to Luther
Martin Luther
17.3 Luther Leads the Reformation
1. Social Reasons
-People questioned the Church
-Renaissance values of secularism & humanism
2. Political Reasons
-Kings challenged the supreme power of the Church
-Pope was viewed as foreign power & his authority was challenged
Causes of the Reformation
95 Theses
- Some tried to apply Luther's ideas to society
-1524: German peasants demanded more rights, raided & burnt monasteries.
-Luther was shocked at this revolt Urged German princes to show peasants no mercy Princes' armies crushed the revolt killed almost 100,000 people Peasants felt betrayed & many rejected Luther's religious leadership.
3. Economic Reasons
-European monarchs jealous of the Church's wealth
-People resented having to pay taxes to the Church
4. Religious Reasons
-Some Church leaders had become corrupt
-Many did not accept the sale on indulgences
Criticisms of the Catholic Church [What people did not like]:
1. Church leaders were corrupt

2. Popes spent too much on patronizing the arts

3. One pope admitted that he had several children

4. Many popes focused more on worldly pleasures than their spiritual duties

5. Many priests & monks could not even read

6. Some broke their vows (got married, drank too much, gambled)
1517 in Wittenberng, Germany

Priests collecting money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral

Selling indulgences fine for sinning/guilt money paid to the Church.

For example: rob your neighbor, go to hell - rob your neighbor and pay an indulgence with the money you stole, go to heaven

People could literally buy their way into heaven.
Main Ideas:
1. People could get into heaven only by God's forgiveness, by faith or by doing good.

2. All Christian teachings should be based on the Bible.

3. The Pope and Church positions are false authorities.

4. All people with faith are equal. Therefore, people do not need priests to interpret the Bible for them.
1. The Pope's Threat:
2. The Emperor's Opposition
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V opposed Luther's teachings Ordered Luther to come to Worms to stand trail Asked him to withdraw his statements Luther refused Charles issued the Edict of Worms (an imperial order) that declared Luther an outlaw & heretic; no one was allowed to give Luther food or shelter; all his books were to be burned Prince Fredrick of Saxony disobeyed the Emperor & sheltered Luther in one of his castles
-Many princes supported Lutheranism. But some for selfish reasons.
-They saw his teachings as an excuse to seize Church property & gain independence.
-1529: Conflict happened between:
German princes who remained loyal to the Pope vs. Princes who supported Luther (Protestants)
-Protestants applies to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches.
-Charles V wanted everyone to remain Catholic went to was against Protestant princes
-He defeated them in 1547 but failed to force them back into Catholicism.
-1555: Peace of Augsburg Tired of war, Charles gathered all German princes to make peace; they agreed each ruler would decide the religious of his state.
Script Summary
Martin Luther: "The Church has become corrupt. The Pope has drifted from Christian teachings"

Pope Leo X: "If you don't change your mind, I will take away your right to membership in the Church"

Charles V: "Luther, take back what you have said"

Luther: "No. I have to do what I believe is right"

Charles V: "You are an outlaw. Nobody in my lands is allowed to help you. All the books you have written will be burned"

Prince Fredrick: "I will protect you, Luther"
Responses to Luther
Full transcript