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Alternate Energy Resources

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by

Rebecca Zamir

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of Alternate Energy Resources

Wind Energy
Alternate Energy Resources
WHAT IS RENEWABLE ENERGY
Renewable energy is energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat
ALTERNATE ENERGY
RESOURCES
Natural resources and elements can be converted into electricity with more efficiency than the fossil fuels our society is used to using.
The
carbon footprint
is the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person. Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services. The average U.S. household carbon footprint is about 50 tons CO2e per year.

By Rebecca Zamir
SOLAR POWER
BIOENERGY
WATER ENERGY
Geothermal Energy
The Pros of Renewable Energy
Using renewable energy will preserve natural habitats of endangered species due to the lack of drilling for fossil fuels.
The subsidies in place allow the [alternative energy] industry to grow and technologies to be developed and mature and drive costs down.
Biofuels have the added benefit of providing a ''carbon sink.''' As crops grow to produce the feedstocks for making the biofuel, they absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
The Cons of Renewable Energy
If Congress were to expand the areas available for active exploration, we could make more domestic energy available to Americans in the future, while sending a strong positive supply signal to markets today, potentially putting downward pressure on prices.
Federal efforts to pick winners and losers among energy sources have a dismal track record relative to allowing market forces to decide the direction of energy innovation
As global population soars to 8 or 9 billion toward mid-century, and as we burn more grain as fuel, shortages and production costs could cause grain prices to skyrocket, taking food from the mouths of the world's poorest people.
THE PROS AND CONS
TYPES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
SOLAR
WATER
BIOENERGY
GEOTHERMAL
Solar energy technologies use the sun's energy and light to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and even cooling, for homes, businesses, and industry.

TYPES OF SOLAR ENERGY:
Photovoltaic systems
produce electricity directly from sunlight.
Solar Hot Water
is the process of heating water with solar energy.
Passive Solar Heating and Daylighting
is using the sun's energy to heat and light buildings.
Wind turbines, like windmills, are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above ground, they can take advantage of the faster and less turbulent wind. Turbines catch the wind's energy with their propeller-like blades.
Lift:
When the wind blows, a pocket of low-pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it, causing the rotor to turn.
Drag:
The wind's force against the front side of the blade.
The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to spin like a propeller, and the turning shaft spins a generator to make electricity.
Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It's clean and sustainable. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma.
Wells can be drilled into underground reservoirs for the generation of electricity. Some geothermal power plants use the steam from a reservoir to power a turbine/generator, while others use the hot water to boil a working fluid that vaporizes and then turns a turbine. Hot water near the surface is also used.

TYPES OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY:
Geothermal Electricity Production:
Generating electricity from the earth's heat.
Geothermal Direct Use:
Producing heat directly from hot water within the earth.
Geothermal Heat Pumps:
Using the shallow ground to heat and cool buildings.
The ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat, and mechanical energy from the tides and waves.

TYPES OF WATER/OCEAN ENERGY:
Closed-cycle:
systems that use the ocean's warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid, which has a low-boiling point. The vapor expands and turns a turbine. The turbine then activates a generator to produce electricity.
Open-cycle:
systems that boil seawater by operating at low pressures. This produces steam that passes through a turbine/generator.
Hybrid:
combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle.
WIND
Bioenergy is the energy from organic matter - for thousands of years, ever since people started burning wood to cook food or to keep warm.

TYPES OF BIOENERGY
Biofuels:
Converting biomass into liquid fuels for transportation.
Biopower:
Burning biomass directly, or converting it into a gaseous fuel or oil, to generate electricity.
Bioproducts:
Converting biomass into chemicals for making products that typically are made from petroleum.
OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
"Clean Energy" is the sustainable provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The goalls of clean energy are to not waste energy and use energy sources that don't harm the environment. We can shield residential customers from high utility bills, help businesses keep expenses low, and create thousands of good jobs in construction, manufacturing, research, and design.
BIODIESEL
Renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled cooking grease.
Biodiesel is a domestically produced, clean-burning, renewable substitute for petroleum diesel. Using biodiesel as a vehicle fuel increases energy security, improves public health and the environment, and provides safety benefits.
It is safer than petroleum diesel because it is less combustible and is nontoxic.
ETHANOL
The majority of consumers who support biodiesel are located in the eastern part of the country.
Renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials.
A gallon of ethanol contains less energy than a gallon of gasoline. The result is lower fuel economy than a gallon of gasoline
Ethanol production creates jobs in rural areas where employment opportunities are needed. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, ethanol production in 2012 added more than 365,000 jobs across the country, $40.6 billion to the gross domestic product, and $28.9 billion in household income.
Cellulosic ethanol use could reduce GHGs by as much as 86%.
Ethanol is mainly used in the north-western part of the United States.
HYDROGEN
Potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources.
It holds promise for growth in both the stationary and transportation energy sectors.
The environmental and health benefits are even greater when hydrogen is produced from low- or zero-emission sources, such as solar, wind, and nuclear energy and fossil fuels with advanced emission controls and carbon sequestration
Has the highest energy content by weight of any fuel, but its energy content by volume is low.
Hydrogen has its most potential from renewable resources in the middle part of the United States, as represented by the dark shades of blue.
NATURAL GASSES
Abundant gaseous fuel that has better cost avantages compared to gasoline.
Compared with vehicles fueled by conventional diesel and gasoline, natural gas vehicles can produce lower levels of some emissions.
Natural gas reserves are abundant, meaning this alternative fuel can be domestically produced and used to offset the petroleum currently being imported for transportation use.
Most of natural gas processing plants exist in Texas and the southern half of the U.S
Propane fuel stations are set up all around the country, primarily located in the eastern half of the United States.
PROPANE
Also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or autogas, has been used worldwide as a vehicle fuel for decades. It is stored as a liquid, and propane fueling infrastructure is widespread.
Readily available.
Propane is nontoxic, nonpoisonous, and insoluble in water. Compared with vehicles fueled by conventional diesel and gasoline, propane vehicles can produce lower amounts of some harmful air pollutants and greenhouse gases, depending on vehicle type, drive cycle, and engine calibration.
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