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Wrap-up on Training and Development

For the last class of Bus 386

Jean-Francois Coget

on 25 September 2012

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Transcript of Wrap-up on Training and Development

T & D
Human Capital
is difficult to imitate
is one of the most precious assets of organizations
Human Resources:
Selection and hiring
Consider Google:
A planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job related competencies to support the Strategy of the organization.
low cost
reliable experience in
every restaurant
is similar to training, but the objectives are:
more future than present oriented
… less specific
… and often more geared to managers, or high potential employees.
The outcomes of development might be harder to measure
Needs Assessment
Learning Environment
Training Method
Evaluation Plan
Organization Analysis
Person Analysis
Task Analysis
Understand the company's strategy
Interview a wide array of people
Review records
Look for evidence that skills are missing

... but also for opportunities to stay ahead of the curve
Generate a list of human capital needs that could be addressed by T&D
Prioritize that list based on strategic goals
Also, determine resources available for training and climate
core competencies
requirements of the business
job incumbents
Personnel files
Beware: these needs could also be addressed by hiring, or changing strategy
Depends on culture and top management view on training
List tasks needed to complete a particular job

Match tasks with KSAOs

Will help you determine Learning Objectives
Observe and consult with a variety of people:
subject matter experts
Choose which training program to offer based on:
Prioritized organizational training needs
Prioritized employee groups
For each program, specify learning objectives based on person and task analyses
For each learning objective, specify learning outcomes
Create an environment conducive to learning
Refer to learning theories
In case of face-to-face training, arrange physical setting
Create a detailed lesson plan
Verbal information
Intellectual skills
Motor Skills
Cognitive strategies
You should let trainees know why they should learn

Provide them with meaningful training content

Give them opportunity to practice

Help them remember the material

Give them feedback about their learning

Employees learn through observation, experience, and social interaction with other trainees

Employees need training program to be properly coordinated and arranged
Reinforcement Theory
Social Learning Theory
Goal Setting Theory
Need Theories
Expectancy Theory
Adult Learning Theory
Information Processing Theory
Select a training method that optimizes:
The intended learning outcomes
Transfer of training
Traditional training methods:
Audio Visual instruction
Self-directed learning
Case Study
Business games
Role plays
Behavior modeling
Experiential Learning
Adventure Learning
Action Learning
E-training methods:
online learning (e-learning)
distance learning
virtual reality
expert systems
electronic support systems (ESS)
learning management systems
E-learning is growing:
Its more expensive to develop
However, once developed, it can yield huge economies of scale and reduces costs associated with traveling, accommodation, food
It is more flexible
It can be on-demand
The Role of trainers changes from content providers to facilitators of a learning experience
Did the program fulfill its intent?
Needed to justify investment in training
(Return On Investment)
ROI=Benefits/(direct + indirect costs)
Note that it’s often subjective to determine ROI.
How you calculate benefits is key.
For instance, the cost of turnover can be hard to estimate, and could be manipulated to inflate benefits and therefore ROI.
Develop measures to ensure that learning outcomes were actually reached
Choose an evaluation design to reduce threats to validity
Post-test only design
Pre-test/post-test design
Pre-test/post-test with comparison group
Time series
Solomon Four-Group design
Implement the training program
Evaluate the training program
Make changes to the training program
Is training the answer?

Who needs training?

Adapt training to participants

Readiness for training
It could be:
a motivation issue
an unclear job description
poor managerial support
Analyze the workforce and job requirements:
Do they match?
What are their key demographic and other characteristics?
Basic skills needed to succeed in training, such as:
Reading abilities
Basic mathematical skills
Different generations

Different educational levels

Different learning styles
Require different learning environments
Transfer of Training
Training Design that maximizes transfer:
Replicate work environment (Identical element)

Emphasize general principles (Stimulus generalization)

Have meaningful content (Cognitive theory of transfer)
...means that trainees effectively and continually apply what they learned in training to their jobs
Maximize Trainees motivation:
Remind them of training goals
Encourage trainee self-management
Work environment conducive to transfer:
Managerial support
Peer support
Opportunity to use skills
Technological support
Learning organization
Knowledge management systems
Done correctly, T&D can be a strategic tool
Help companies to differentiate themselves from the competition
Help them adapt to a continually changing world
Make good on the promise to treat their people as their most important asset
Help HR justify its role as important
Done incorrectly, T&D
waste of time and resources
Can lead to cynical views of HR
focused on compliance rather than performance
administrative / bureaucratic
Full transcript