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Transcript of U.S. constitution
Ratification of the Constitution
The Constitution was ratified on January 10th 1791
It was ratified at the constitutional convention
The process of drafting and ratifying the United States Constitution took almost four years
Parts of the Constituion
Drafting the Constitution
How Did The Constitution Come About?
Articles of Confederation
Treaty of Paris
Was signed in Paris, France by Adams, Franklin, Jay, and Henry Laurens for the United States and Richard Oswald for Great Britain
It was signed on September 3rd 1783
Was ratified by the continental congress on January 4th 1784
The treaty of paris recognized the american independence
New Jersey Plan
- The national government under the Articles of Confederation was powerless to raise money to pay back the debt or pay back the soldiers because each law had to be approved by every single state. Just one state's saying no meant that a bill was defeated.
-The Continental Congress wrote the Articles of Confederation during the Revolutionary War
-The articles were written to give the colonies some sense of a unified government
-A new governing document was needed in order for these new states to act together, to become a nation
-The Articles of Confederation became effective on March 1, 1781, after all thirteen states had ratified them
-The Articles made the states and legislature supreme. There was no executive branch. Judicial functions were very limited
-it's the movement by New England farmers desperate to be paid for the service in the Revolutionary War.
-Farmer Daniel Shays was the founder of Shay's Rebellion
-most intense in the rural and relatively newly settled areas of central and western Massachusetts
-4 men were killed and 20 were injured
-in 1787 the Constitution became a reality
-Shays' Rebellion "had a great influence on public opinion," as Samuel Eliot Morison notes
The 7 Articles
by: Skyelar Sturgeon, Ashley Sutton, Alyssa Nohel, and Taylor Dobson
Started in May 1781 in Philidalphia, Pennsylvania
Presidents from 12 of the 13 states, Rhode Island refused to send a president
Rhode Island was afraid that any new system proposed by the convention would be detrimental to its economy.
Delegates worked for 4 months behind closed doors
The process began with the proposal of James Madison's Virginia Plan.
Virginia's governor, Edmund Randolph, presented Madison's plan to the convention.
-drafted by James Madison
-presented by Edmund Randolph to the Constitutional Convention on May 29th
-It represented the desires of the bigger states and said that the number of representatives to Congress should be based on the state's population
- This called for national government that have of three branches with checks and balances to prevent the abuse of power
The Magna Carta is widely viewed as one of the most important legal documents in the history of democracy.
It was written by a group of 13Th century barons to protect the rights and property against a tyrannical king.
- The New Jersey plan was written by William Paterson from New Jersey.
- It represented the smaller states and said that each state should have the same number of representatives.
-The New Jersey plan was made in rebuttal to the Virginia Plan, which made for a very strong central government and representation by population
-It provided for only one house of Congress
-This allowed the number of representatives to the House be based on the state's population while each state would have two representatives in the Senate.
-The three-fifths compromise was an agreement between Southern and Northern states reached during the Constitutional Convention
-Under this compromise, only three-fifths of the slave population was counted for the purpose of taxation and representation in Congress
-Most of the northern states didn't want to count slaves at all
-Two representatives, James Wilson and Roger Sherman
John Locke was a political philosopher whose works were read by many of the framers of the constitution
Locke lists rights that Jefferson refers to in the Declaration of Independence.
John Locke's ideas of people having natural rights shaped the ideas of the constitutuion.
Locke believed that "Each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property."
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
Article1 Legislative Branch-The congress makes the laws of the U.S. Congress has 2 parts called houses. The house of representatives and the senate.
Article2 Executive Branch-the President, Vice-President, Cabinet, and Departments under the
Cabinet Secretaries carry out the laws made by Congress
Article3 Judicial Branch-the Supreme Court decides court cases according to US Constitution. The
courts under the Supreme Court decide criminal and civil court cases according to the correct federal,
state, and local laws.
Article4 State's power-States have the power to make and carry out their own laws.
Article5 Amendments-The Constitution can be changed. New amendments can be added to the US Constitution.
Article6 Federal powers-The Constitution and federal laws are higher than state and local law
Article7 Ratification-The Constitution was presented to George Washington and the men at the Constitutional Convention 12 of the 13 representatives signed to approve it
Amendment 11- Any state can be sued by a U.S citizen
Amendment 12-Changes in electoral college procedures
Amendment 13-Abolishes and prohibits slavery
Amendment 14-Citizenship due process equal protectio
Amendment 15-U.S. cannot prevent a person from voting because of race or color.
Amendment 16-Congress is given the power to tax incomes
Amendment17-The direct election of senators
Amendment18- Prohibition of liquor
Amendment 19-Women gain the right to vote
Amendment 20-Procedures for outgoing president and the new president coming in
Amendment 21-Repeal of prohibition (18th Amendment)
Amendment 22-Limit on presidential terms
Amendment 23-District of Columbia receives electoral votes
Amendment 24-Prohibits federal and state governments from charging poll tax
Amendment 25-Presidential succession and presidential disability
Amendment 26-18 year olds gain the right to vote
Amendment 27-Any change in congressional salaries takes place after the general election
Virginia received three charters, one in 1606, another in 1609, and the third in 1612.
It said three things...
settlers could own land in the colony
settlers could create a council to help make their own laws
settlers would keep the same rights as any other Englishmen