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Arabic Muslims and the first crusade

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Emily Melenewycz

on 20 June 2014

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Transcript of Arabic Muslims and the first crusade

An account of an important battle in one of the Crusades
The impact of the Crusades on the Muslims
Possible economic resources for the Muslims
The significance of Jerusalem for the Muslims
Jerusalem was extremely important and significant to the Muslims. The reason Jerusalem was important was because when the prophet Muhammad first set out on his journey, (which was the first pilgrimage) Jerusalem was the first stop and was considered holy. This stop was also the first time Muhammad prayed in the direction of Mecca. This was called a Kibla. Jerusalem is known as "Al-Quds or Baitul-Maqdis" meaning 'The Noble, Sacred Place'. It was important to Muslims because it was known as the land of many Prophets. It was also the first Qiblah for Muslims, meaning the place Muslims face when praying. Years later, Muhammad was told to change the Qiblah from Jerusalem to Mecca. This is why there are only three sacred mosques that Muhammad said should be travelled to on a pilgrimage: the sacred mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the mosque of mine in Madinah, Saudi Arabia, and the mosque of Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. During Muhammad's night journey he visited Jerusalem, which increased its significance to Muslims.
The cause of the Crusades from the Muslim perspective by considering economic, religious and social forces
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The extent of the Muslim influence and empire
Arabic Muslims and the First Crusade
Siege of Antioch
The First Crusade began in 1096 and ended in 1099. It was led by Count Raymond the IV of Toulouse. The purpose of this war was to free the holy lands. After the Crusade, life was improved for everyone. People became healthier and more educated. Capital is a category of economic resources, including the goods made by humans. Muslims were able to invent many things which influenced the Europeans, such as new ideas and knowledge for mathematics, different ways of drawing maps, new ways of using medicine (although Muslims had more experience with medicine at the time), new designs for ships and castles (such as the concentric castle, which is a castle with two or more curtain walls), and new devices like the windmill, the astrolabe and the magnetic compass, which were first invented by Muslims. The astrolabe was first used to ensure that prayers were conducted on time for Muslims, but was then developed to be used as a navigation device for sailors, and traders when they couldn't see land, and also to tell the time of the day. In conclusion, the improved life for Europeans and Muslims following the crusade largely influenced independence, resulting in the improvement and invention of many things.

The Muslim perceptions of Christians
Jerusalem had been Christian for hundreds of years when Caliph Omar won it through war, and following that victory, Muslims warred their way into Egypt, other parts of Africa, Spain, Sicily, and Greece, leaving a trail of destruction in there path. They destroyed Catholic communities founded by St. Paul himself. The Muslims created a "Racial Memory" of hatred against Christians and the word Crusade, while conveniently forgetting that Islam was spread throughout Europe at the point of a sword three hundred years before the Crusades. More Christians were killed by Muslims than Muslims by Christians.
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The Muslims considered the invasion of Jerusalem, a forced conversion and enslavement of their culture and religion. Only a few cities in Syria remained in Muslim hands, and they were refuges and places for Islamic resistance. Muslims viewed the Christian settlements as criminal and unjust. They were outraged that the Christians were killing the majority of the native inhabitants and enslaving their holy land. The early Christians were viewed as ruthless, bloodthirsty, and barbaric. The Muslim population considered the loss of Jerusalem, the Al-Aqsa mosque and the Dome of the Rock as the greatest loss in their religious history. Some Muslim scholars though that the success of the Christians in the First Crusade was a punishment from Allah, for neglecting their religious duties, for failing to stop the holy war and for not defending the territories God had entrusted to them. They believed the only way to satisfy God was to fight to take back Muslim territory from the Christians. That is why when the Arab Muslims launched a counter crusade, they considered it to be a defensive war.
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One of the most important battles during the first crusade was the Siege of Antioch. This battle took place during 1097 and 1098. The first siege was performed by the Crusader raiding into the Muslim-Held City, This siege lasted between the 21st of October 1097to the 2nd of June 1098. When the Muslim government found out about the attack on their city, they made sure they were prepared by stock-piling food and sending requests for help. As well as being prepared the city was surrounded by the huge Byzantine Walls which would make a very tough obstacle for people to pass.

When the Crusader arrived outside the city they were low on food. They started to search the area for food, unfortunately there was no food around the so they were forced to search further inland. This left them prone to attackers. On the 31st of December they ran into a army and killed them. One in seven Crusaders were suffering from starvation and the others started to desert them because they slowed them down. Another army under the command of Ridwan of Allepo travelled down to try to defeat the crusader this team like the team of Duqaq before were defeated. Eventually on the 3rd of June Antioch was capture by the Crusaders. The citadel was still under control by the Muslim Defenders. Another leader of an army Kerbogha began a second siege, this time against the Crusaders occupying Antioch ( 7th June to 28th June). The second siege ended when the crusaders exited the city to engage Kerbogha's army in battle and succeeded in defeating them. On seeing the Muslim army routed, the defenders remaining in the citadel surrendered.

One of the most important battles during the first crusade was the Siege of Antioch. This battle took place during 1097 and 1098. The first siege was performed by the Crusader raiding into the Muslim-Held City, This siege lasted between the 21st of October 1097to the 2nd of June 1098. When the Muslim government found out about the attack on their city, they made sure they were prepared by stock-piling food and sending requests for help. As well as being prepared the city was surrounded by the huge Byzantine Walls which would make a very tough obstacle for people to pass.

When the Crusader arrived outside the city they were low on food. They started to search the area for food, unfortunately there was no food around the so they were forced to search further inland. This left them prone to attackers. On the 31st of December they ran into a army and killed them. One in seven Crusaders were suffering from starvation and the others started to desert them because they slowed them down. Another army under the command of Ridwan of Allepo travelled down to try to defeat the crusader this team like the team of Duqaq before were defeated. Eventually on the 3rd of June Antioch was capture by the Crusaders. The citadel was still under control by the Muslim Defenders. Another leader of an army Kerbogha began a second siege, this time against the Crusaders occupying Antioch ( 7th June to 28th June). The second siege ended when the crusaders exited the city to engage Kerbogha's army in battle and succeeded in defeating them. On seeing the Muslim army routed, the defenders remaining in the citadel surrendered.

The Muslims had viewed the Christians as people who wanted lots of power by taking over multiple civilisations. When the first crusade began, the Muslims thought it was the only the Franks wanting to take over the land. However when they started attacking, the Muslims began to realise it was stronger than expected and remembered this as 'The Wars of the Cross'.
After the crusades the art, architecture and literature was basically untouched. The Muslims thought they did not need to understand the 'barbarians from the north' but the occasional scholar tried to understand the views of the Christians.
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