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Living Environment Labs 12-13 by Nancy Umanzor

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Nancy Umanzor

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Living Environment Labs 12-13 by Nancy Umanzor

lab 9: energy pipeline lab 15: observing plant cells and organelles purpose: lab 14: the affect of temperature on cellular respiration on yeast purpose: to determine the optimum temperature for yeast to perform cellular respiration. observations: Living Environment Labs Lab 1 Modeling levels of organization int he living Environment (Cube Lab) Purpose- To show the different levels of organization from small to small each one gets smaller. This is what i have observed doing this lab. Materials- six different size boxes,scissors tape, and crayons Produces- 1. when you have the different size sheets of paper,draw each level of ecology of organization on them. 2. draw the levels Ecology on largest to smallest. 3. make sure you draw the correct thing on each box. 4.after finished drawing cut out and place the cubes inside each other big to small, to show the different levels or organization. 5.write your name and the name of the levels of ecology on each box. Make sure they are correct. Observations- I was that each level of ecology are different. there are 6 different levels of ecology. each level gets smaller when you start from biosphere and end at the population. every time you would start a new box i noticed that each time there is more and more. Conclusion- the purpose of this lab was to model the levels of organization within the living environment. cubes were made to show the different levels and placed inside each other to show how the levels are organized. the smallest cube (population)was placed within the next largest cube(community),which was placed.. biosphere biome ecosystem community population organism lab #2 food chains and webs I) Purpose: to show the which populations interact together in a community and to use arrows to show the flow of energy. II) materials and procedures: -materials population cards`, arrows -procedures : 1)student have to locate other students that have a population that would live in the same community as them. 2) use arrows to show the energy flow within that community. 3) students made inferences about the how the removal of one population would effect the others. III) observations: kelp sea urchin otter autotroph
producer hetertroph
consumer hetertroph
consumer bacteria (decomposer) v) conclusion: the purpose of this lab was to show populations interact in a community and to show the energy flow using arrows. populations were organized into food chain using arrows and then labeled based on their nutritional role (autotroph or heteotroph). this lab showed that all food chains start witha producer and that the arrows point away from the produce. Also, when one population is removed, all the other population within the community are affected in someway. Lab 3: Using Dichotomous Keys to Identify Deciduous Trees

1) Purpose- to explore the diversity of deciduous trees.

2) Materials- leaf samples, Dichotomous Key.

3) Procedures-
-collect four different leaf samples from trees around school.
- use the dichotomous key to identify each tree species
- research what type of populations use that tree for habitat or for food
- construct a food chain using a dichotomous key
4) Observations- 1) Betula Birch
2) Aesculus Buckeye
3) Carya Pecan
4) Sweet Gum
5) Redbud
6) Magnolia
7) Locus sweet gum tent caterpillars birds owls 5) Conclusion- This showed the diversity of deciduous trees. By showing the diversity of the trees we learned that there are different types of trees in the woods. and that different insects eat the trees. We also learned to use a dichotomous key. we had to look for leaves and identify them which helped made us use the dichotomous key. There was many things learned in this lab. bacteria (decomposer) Lab 4 : Bottleneck Genes
1) purpose- to simulate survival of the fittest witthin the surviving population of black footed ferrets.
2)materials-
bottles with beads
genetic characteristics key
environmental scenario cut outs
3)procedures-
1) shake bottle and roll out 9 beads
2) answer questions 1-3 on the blue sheet
3) select 5 environmental cards
4) answer question 4 on blue sheet
4)observations- the genetic characteristics that my population received through the bottle neck were green,yellow,dark blue, orange, pink, red. the traits i dint receive were black, purple, and white. when i used the five environmental cards.it showed me that i had the correct characteristics to survive in the situations i was put in, so i survived.
5)conclusion- the lab showed that you need the right characteristics to survive in the environment. so the population of the black footed ferrets will be simulated so they can survive. characteristics key
green-agility
yellow-camouflage
dark blue- healthy jaw formation
orange-accurate sense of smell
pink-strong claws and forearms
red- healthy rate of reproduction
black-perspex vision
purple-accurate hearing
white-immunity to k-9 distemper lab 5: natural selection in a sea turtle purpose- to act out the natural selection in a population of sea turtles.
materials-
beads
bottles
bead/characteristics key
environmental scenario cards
procedures-
1. Shake the bottle
2. Pour out 6-7 beads to represent the traits that your new population posses.
3. Pull three different environmental scenario cards and determine if your population is adapted to survive these environmental changes
observations- bead color- trait
orange-fast swimmer
yellow- good hearing
Green- camouflage
dark blue- good eyesight
pink- healthy rate of reproduction
black- good food locator
red- hard shell
purple- good sense of smell
white- fast shelter finder/maker conclusion- the sea turtle population survived because they had a lot of variation through out the genes. which shows that they can survive most dangers. this lab showed the natural selection in sea turtles. you basically had to pour out 6 beads and pick 3 environmental cards to see if you had survived. and the population of sea turtles did. Lab 6: Beaks of Finches (STATE LAB)

I) Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to simulate natural selection in Darwins Finches.

I) Materials:
-large seeds
-small seeds
-tables to represent Galapagos Islands
-Tools to represent different size and shape beak

II) Procedures:

. Students were given their “tool” to represent which type of beak they had.

2. Students completed several rounds of feeding on islands with different size seeds.


3. Students recorded how many seeds the ate after each round

IV) Observation:
round one: feeding with no competition
partners trials seeds collected
partner#1- #1- 10
#2- 30
partner#2- #3- 18
#4- 29
average- 22 V) Conclusion-
1) the characteristics that interfered with feeding on the island was that it could not grab more that two at a time. and the size of the food.
2) three traits were good eyesight, large wingspan and speed.
3) three beak variations that could improve the species are good eyesight, big wingspan, and speed.
4) some beak types survived in the new island because on the original island there was more competition and smaller seeds.
6) no, because they were more birds and the same amount of food and no competition.
7) there was fewer survivors at the end because it was more competition on each island because some of them got taking away. and because the amount of seeds there. and more birds there was less food.
8) no, they weren't because there was more competing that had smaller beaks and could work faster.
9)
variation; the different sizes of beaks.
competition; the birds on one island trying to gget food.
struggle for survival; the difference of the bigger and smaller birds and there beaks. food source went down so there was more struggle.
adaptation; smaller beaks were better adapted
environment; the size of the seeds.
selecting agent: the size of the seeds.
10) larger beaks are going to survive better because the size of the seeds.
11)
a) both plant and animal are available.
b) no because they are filling different niches in different habitats.
c) ground finches will decrease due to the competition.
12)
a)the island would have large and small seeds.
b)have both large and small seeds available and both large and small beaked birds lab 7: oh deer I) purpose: to simulate the "limiting factors" limit the size of a population. also to explore how every environment has a carrying capacity in order to maintain dynamic equilibrium.
II) materials
- students to represent deer
- students to represent resources
- students to represent wolves
III) procedures
1) 24 students were assigned to be deer, natural resources and wolves.
2) students lined up on opposite walls and turned around so you can see each other.
3) resources had to pick to be space, water,and food.
4) deer had to run to a resources they needed to survive. when conductor says "oh deer"
5) if a deer finds the resources it needs it will go back to the deer side with the deer. if not they will both stay on the resources side.
6) repeat 9 times. record data
IIV) observations: V) conclusion: the purpose of the lab was to stimulate the size of the populatio and to see what were the factors. the number of the deer was limited because of they didnt get the resources and wolves. the number of deer that stayed within a certain range was 12-15. the dynamic equilibrium was up ans down with the wolf population. http://www.benettonplay.com/toys/flipbookdeluxe/player.php?id=419128 Lab 8: ecological succession purpose: the purpose of this lab was to show the ecological succession in a forest. materials: - computer
- notebook
- pen or pencil procedures: I) take notes on ecological succession
II) after taking notes go to a computer and go on to http://www.benettonplay.com
III) when on the website create a flip book. the flip book is need to show the process of ecological succession.
IV) then when finished, save the flip book and copy the URL given at the bottom of the page.
V) then paste URL in the observations part of your prezi. conclusion: the process of ecological succession was shown when the process of making the flip book.
the flip book showed that lichens decomposed the rocks into sandy soil. and then the grass community established. after the grass were the shrubs community. then the tree community replaced the shrubs. this process continues over and over again when a forest is wiped out by a natural disaster or a forest fire. click the link
I) purpose- to explore how energy is transferred through a food chain; lost to heat at each level.
II) materials
-heat cup
-calories(colored chips)
-sun person(teacher)
-4 groups of people to represent 4 tropic levels
III) procedures
1) students were grouped into feeding levels
2) calories were given to plankton, some were burned off(placed in heat cup)
3) each level transfer calories to next level.
4) record data
IV) observations
phytoplankton--> krill--> trout--> shark
10 6 4 2 -----------------------------
phytoplankton -------------------------
krill -------------------
trout --------------
sharks heat heat IIV) conclusion
this lab shows the energy that is lost threw out the levels. energy is lost because each level has an amount needed and amount burned off. is to explore how energy is transferred through a food chain. lab 10: hazardous links I) purpose:
to simulate how pollutants get transfer through a food chain.
II) materials:
-chips(calories)
-red chips(pesticide)
-4 tropic level
III) procedures
1) arrange students into 4 tropic levels
2) gave phytoplankton 10 chips each
3) they metalized(used) up 2 chips(calories) each and passed remaining calories to the next level.
4) repeat until calories reach top of the chain. then recordphytoplankton---> zoo plankton--->minnow---> osprey data.
IV)observations: population phyto. 9
zoo. 7
minn. 5
ospr. 4 # of chips 90
72
58
48 # of red chips 37
37
37
37 % of red chips 41%
51%
64%
77% conclusion:
the purpose of this lab was to simulate how pollutants get transferred through a food chain. in the end the osprey had the most red chips (toxin). this shows that organisms at the top of the food chain are most harmed pollution. this happened because every time passed by the level the pesticide % increases because the energy lost, because they don't burn off so they reproduce.
purpose: to simulate the interdependence between plants and animals( autotropho and heterotroph) as shown in photosynthesis and respiration.
materials: sun mat, chloroplast mat, mitochondria mat, litltle sheets of paper that say : glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.
procedures:
1) all students started at sun mat.
2) first student carried water and carbon dioxide to chloroplast and picked up glucose and oxygen
3) glucose and oxygen was then carried to the mitochondria, where ATP, water carbon dioxide was picked up
4) ATP was placed in heat cup in heat bin, and CO2 and water was recycled and the process started over again.
observations: H2O,CO2,ATP Heat Bucket Glucose &O2 CO2 &H20 photosynthesis cellular respiration conclusion: the purpose of this lab was to simulate the interdependence between plants and animals, as shown in photosynthesis and cellular respiration. we copied the process of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, to see how and why it used what it did. when we started off we began from the sun to see the energy from the sun to the chloroplast, using CO2 & H20 to create Glucose & O2 and then move on to do the process of cellular respiration. when bring in Glucose and O2. the mitochondria gave H20, CO2, and ATP. then the ATP going to the heat bucket to create the process again. and the H2O and CO2 got recycled by the plants and animals Lab 11: energy process LAB 12: NATURAL SUPPLEMENTS:
DO THEY REALLY WORK? PURPOSE: does focus Vitamin Water help students focus?
HYPOTHESIS: Focus vitamin water will not help students focus more.
MATERIALS: cups, Crystal Light, Vitamin Water Focus, focus test
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
control group- Crystal Light, people who drank Crystal Light
experimental group- Vitamin water, people who drank Vitamin Water
constants- amount of water, time, test,
independent variable- Vitamin water
dependent variable- focus test
OBSERVATIONS: CONCLUSION: the purpose of this lab was to see if focus vitamin water helped students focus. so we tested it. we each drank a cup of vitamin water or crystal light and after drinking we took a focus test. the results showed that the vitamin water didn't help students focus. the results showed that there was no impact to the students because the control group had the number 13 to be the highest # touched and the experimental highest # touched was 9. my results did support my hypothesis because i thought it wasn't going to help and my hypothesis was correct. this lab showed that not all natural supplements always work. so it might be a waste of money or not, its your choice to try it. Effect of Light on the Rate of Photosynthesis lab 13: I) problem: would different colors of light effect the rate of photosynthesis?
II) hypothesis: if there are different colors of light then it would effect the rate of photosynthesis.
III) materials: 3 cups, straw to exhale CO2, colored plastic wrap( clear and red), 3 springs of elodea.
IV) procedures:
1) pour BTB in 2 cups, same amount
2) exhale CO2 with straw until yellow
3) add elodea to both cups, same size
4) cover one with clear wrap and cover the other with red wrap, place in light
5) observe and collect data until back to blue.
Experimental Design:
control group: clear plastic
experimental group: red plastic wrap
independent: colored lights
dependent: time it takes for cup to turn back to blue
constants: amount of chemical, same plant, same size of plant, same amount of CO2, same shade of yellow. Observations: Day Experimental cup control cup 0
1
2 yellowish/green

darker blue

darker blue yellowish/green

light blue

blue conclusion: the purpose of this lab was to see if the different color of light would effect the rate of photosynthesis. in the results the experimental cup, which was the red plastic wrap became blue faster instead of the control group which was the clear plastic wrap. the results did not support my hypothesis which was that the color of light would not affect the color of plastics. the results were how they were because the process of photosynthesis requires light which made it harder for experimental group because it was red and not clear so it led to the clear plastic wrap to become blue faster. the formula of photosynthesis is CO2 + water = glucose + O2 and requires light and different plastics changed the rate of photosynthesis. there are many things that change the rate of photosynthesis. hypothesis: 22'c will be optimum for yeast cells to perform cellular respiration. or if you leave the yeast in 22'c which id room temperature then it will perform cellular respiration.
materials: 3 test tubes, graduated cylinder, yeast solution(10cm), 3.54g of sucrose, 3 balloons, and measuring tape.
experiment design:
experimental group; heat and fridge temperature
control group: room temp
independent: temperature
dependent: size of the balloon
constants: amount of yeast, amount of water, and amount of sugar.
procedures:
1) get 3 test tubes
2) fill them with yeast and water mixed
3) then add a packet of sugar to each tube
4) after put the same size balloon on each tube
5) put them in the experimental place. test tubes circumference of the balloon. 1) room
22'C 5cm
2) heat
30'c 5cm
3) cold
2'c 5cm conclusion: the purpose of this lab was to find the maximum temperature for yeast to perform cellular respiration. the results were that all the different temperatures for the yeast affected the cellular respiration the same. because we measured the circumference and they were all equal to 5cm. my results didn't support my hypothesis because all of the circumference were the same. the results were how they were because many the constants weren't kept constant.this shows the affect of temperature on cellular respiration on yeast. observations: to observe plant cells and organelles to learn how to use a microscope. materials: compound microscope, elodea leaf, glass sidle, cover slip, stain, medicine dropper. observations; low power (100x) high power (400x) conclusion: the purpose of this lab was to observe plant cells and organelles. we observed cell wall, chloroplast and cytoplasm and the vacuole. in high power we saw more details because it was an increase in magnification but less cell because there was smaller field of view. we learned how to use a microscope and the different fields of view of magnification. procedures; 1) prepare a wet mount slide
- garbing a glass slide and a leaf of a elodea plant, and placing the leaf on the slide
- drop about 2 drops of stain with the medince dropper on the leaf and quickly place the cover slide on.
- wipe the sides, and the wet mount is complete.
2) place we mount slide on the stage, focus it on neutral then move to high an if needed focus more
3) collect data and move to high power. after that you are finished with the lab.
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