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02.03 The Crusades: Assessment
Transcript of 02.03 The Crusades: Assessment
Pope Urban II
Richard the Lionheart
Peter the Hermit
William of Tyre
I was born in Jerusalem around 1130, I grew up in the Crusader States. I studied at the school in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem as well as in the universities of Paris and Bologna in Europe. When I returned to the Holy Land in 1165, I became a religious official in the city of Tyre in what is now Lebanon. I also served as an advisor and tutor to the Christian lords of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
In 1198 "The Fourth Crusade"
In the mid-12th century "The Third Crusade"
Chronicler of the Crusades
The 12th century 1187-1192
I was in command of one portion of this great multitude. My followers began their journey with shouts of joy and praise. But we had no proper supply of provisions. So when passing through Hungary we plundered the towns and compelled the inhabitants to support us. This roused the anger of the Hungarians. They attacked the Crusaders and killed a great many of them. We were still enthusiastic and sounded their war cry, "God wills it!" with as much passion as when they first joined my standards. Leaving Constantinople, we went eastward into the land of the Turks. A powerful army led by the sultan met us. The Crusaders fought heroically all day long but at length were badly beaten. Only a few escaped and found their way back to Constantinople. I had left the Crusaders before the battle and returned to Constantinople.
I honestly have achieved little. Frederick Barbarossa died along the way, and Phillip returned to Europe after the capture of Acre in 1191. Only I remained to lead the Christian armies. I led many campaigns against Jerusalem and striked a curious relationship with my foe, Saladin, in the process. However, I failed to retake the city. In 1192, Saladin and I reached a truce. According to the peace treaty, Saladin’s Muslim empire kept control of Jerusalem but granted Christians the right to visit the city and their shrines. We kept control of our lands north of the city of Jaffa.
I call for a new Crusade, more out of a desire to elevate the papacy than in response to events in the Holy Land. The Crusade failed to inspire any monarchs. The Crusade set out for the Holy Land in 1202 only to be distracted by Venetian lords who convinced us to capture the wealth and splendor of Eastern Orthodox Constantinople. The Fourth Crusade got rid of the capital of the Byzantine Empire. However, their control of Constantinople lasted less than a century. Our major accomplishment of this Crusade proved to be exhausting the Byzantines enough that we could no longer hold off Muslim expansion.
The Third Crusade, 1187-1192
The Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204
I Saladin rose to lead the seljuks and succeeded in uniting the broke down Muslim armies of S.W. Asia and North Africa. The christian armies were the infidels who had to die. When my forces took Jerusalem, the call want out across Europe to start another crusade. There kings came Emperor Frederick, King Phillip the 2nd, and king Richard the 1st.