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How are ethnicity, religion and nationalism related?

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Emma Harris

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of How are ethnicity, religion and nationalism related?

How are ethnicity, religion and
nationalism related? Emma, Serena, Julia,
Mickael and Pierre Case Studies Conclusions Yugoslavia Northern Ireland Questions for debate Yugoslavia The Troubles Yugoslav conflicts - ethnic cleansing? Northern Ireland Ethnicity Nationalism Religion Definitions "a group of people with a shared cultural identity and spoken language." Adrian Hastings "Integral element of many cultures,
most ethnicities, and some states"
- Adrian Hastings Two-fold concept: Theory and practice

Theory: Each nation should have its own state

Practice: one's ethnic or national tradition is of primordial importance and should be defended "at any cost" Overview Unionists (Protestants) Yugoslavia has often been described as a mix of different ethnic groups:

Serbs have a Cyrillic alphabet whereas Croats have a Latin alphabet.

Serbia speaks Stokavian whereas Croatia and speaks Kajkavian.

Stokavian was spoken by Bosnia and a part of Croatia. Bosnia as “an integral part of Serbia” (Hastings, 1997: 136) - State ultimately fails due to the inability of different ethnicities to unify under the umbrella of one single culture and ethnicity

- Instead divided by nationalistic feelings - More of a religious conflict than an ethnic or nationalistic one
- Saw the clear mobilization of massive religious resources
- As Hastings said, it is impossible to talk about one of the three terms in relation to conflict without talking about the other two.
1) In what other cases have religion, nationalism and ethnicity been the catalyst for conflict?

2) Of religion and ethnicity, which contributes most to the creation of national identity? Timeline 12th Century Ireland conquered by the
Normans from England Mid 16th-17th Century Scottish and English Protestants were sent to colonize Ireland; the majority of which settled in the North 17th and 18th Century Penal Laws Catholics cannot:
Purchase land
Join the army
Receive access to
higher education
Ireland became part of
the United Kingdom 1800 1914 Home Rule The creation of an Irish parliament within the British government of the United Kingdom 1921 Partition Catholics (nationalists) and Protestants

Centuries of civil war between
the two factions 1960s onwards 'The Troubles' Northern Ireland should remain within the United Kingdom Nationalists (Catholics) Northern Ireland should join the Republic of Ireland to form a united Ireland Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) Irish Republican Army (IRA) vs. The Troubles Bombings


Gun attacks

Arson Peace Process IRA Ceasefire 1994

Good Friday Agreement 1998 3 terms: "so intimately linked that it is impossible to write history of any of them without at least a fair amount of discussion of the other 2" Nationalism (cont.) "as something which can empower large numbers of ordinary people, nationalism is a movement which seeks to provide a state for a given 'nation' or further to advance the interest of its 'nation-state' regardless of other considerations" - Oppression of one group in favour of another Is there really an 'ethnic conflict' in Yugoslavia?

Society consists of entirely pre-Slav groups.


Myth of Kosovo genocide
’Eliticide’ in Bosnia (Sells in Scott Davis, 1996: 26).
Srebrenica massacre (July 1995) Nationalist conflicts with religious issues Conflicts in Yugoslavia were perhaps more a matter of nationalism and religion...

- Catholic Christian Slovenes and Croats, Orthodox Christian Serbs and Bosnian and Albanian Muslims

Religion and its heritage have been manipulated in order to raise a legendary nationalist consciousness

- “Coupling of divine approval and national interest is commonplace” (Bruce, 2003: 41). Milosevic wanted to create a “Greater Serbia”. And manipulated religious. The most relevant aspect of this is the 600th anniversary of Kosovo’s battle (1389) in 1989 Irishness and Catholicism Catholic church put into the position of representing Irishness by “default” (Dillon in Jelen, 2002)

Both an ethnic and a social marker

Values emphasizing a weakness of man and a need to rely on God Since the coming of Saint Patrick fifteen hundred years ago, Ireland has been a Christian and a Catholic nation” Eamon de Valera

Catholicism’s “special place” institutionalized in the Constitution

Faith of our fathers Religion and early nationalist movements Daniel O’Connel’s Catholic Association

Church tied in to 19th century nationalist movements “despite itself” (Carey in Merkl, 1985)

Romantic nationalism The Church in Irish Politics Secure position, consensual values in society, and late secularism

Still, decline of religion, amendments of the Constitution

1980s revival, unintentional shift from fundamental to secular arguments (Dillon) Bruce S., 2003, Politics and religion, Cambridge: Polity Press

Burg S.L., 1993, Why Yugoslavia feel apart, Current History, pp.57-63

Carey, M., Catholicism and Irish National Identity In Merkl, P. (ed) Religion and Politics in the Modern World. New York University Press, New York and London (1985)

Clayton, P. Religion, ethnicity and colonialism as explanations of the Northern Ireland conflict. In Miller, D. (Eds) Rethinking Northern Ireland: culture, ideology and colonialism, Chap 2, pages pp. 40-54. First published in London by Longman: Longman (1998)

Coakley, John. The Religious Roots of Irish Nationalism. Social Compass, 2011, 58: 95

Dark K. R., 2000, Religion and International relations, Basingstoke: Palgrave

Dillon, M., Catholicism, Politics, and Culture in the Republic of Ireland. In Jelen, P. (ed) Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective, the One, the Few, the Many. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002)
Hastings A., 1997, The construction of Nationhood: ethnicity, religion and nationalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kennedy, L. Colonialism, Religion and Nationalism in Ireland. Institute of Irish Studies, Belfast (1996)

Scott Davis G., 1996, Religion and justice in the war over Bosnia, London: Routledge

Sokolovic D., Bieber F., 2001, Reconstructing Multiethnic Societies: The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Aldershot: Ashgate Bibliography Naimark C., 2003, Yugoslavia and Its Historians, Understanding the Balkan Wars of the 1990s Badredine A., 2005, International Change and the Stability of Multiethnic States (Yugoslavia, Lebanon, and Crises of Governance) Klemencic M. and Zagar M., 2004, The Former Yugoslavia’s Diverse Peoples, a Reference Sourcebook Why did the countries from the Balkans need to unify? How did the union work? Why did the union
collapse? What about nowadays? - Ideas of the Enlightenment

- Fight against foreign masters & foreign ethnic origins

- Common identity based on Pan-Slavism - Different approaches: confederation of equal & free states VS unification under Serbs' and Croats' supremacy

- No ethnic diversity / No democratic government - Communism failed to solve the conflicts

- The Yugoslav crisis was too deep - Cultural connections cut in the early 1990s ...

... but renewed in the 21th century
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