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NELSON MANDELA

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Chaya Gutnick

on 10 October 2015

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Transcript of NELSON MANDELA

Nelson Mandela
Was Mandela's activism with the ANC, during the Apartheid regime equivalent to terrorism?



"The ANC was reluctant to use violence, the initial targets being infrastructural property, not people. ‘Terrorism’ was a convenient Cold War label directed at the ANC"
Mandela and the
Violence
Communist (Cold War)
Refusal to renounce violence
American congress: ANTI-APARTHEID ACT 1986



"Rolihlahla Mandela"
1939
Fort Hare
Nelson Mandela. Circa 1937
Independent... democratic South Africa?
FULL citizenship, distribution of land, free education
20 YEARS = PEACEFUL & NON VIOLENT
BOYCOTT
STRIKE
DISOBEDIENCE - 1952 DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN
NON COOPERATION
VIOLENCE ENSUES...
SHARPVILLE MASSACRE
"Spear of the Nation"
Umkhonto we Sizwe
1962- 5 years in prison
1964 - LIFE IMPRISONMENT
Protestors demonstrate in Johannesburg on August 16th, 1962.
Terrorist:noun
"A person who uses terrorism (acts of violence) in the pursuit of political aim"
Mandela... TERRORIST?
WHY?
President Ronald Reagan =
"He (Mandela) deserves an enormous amount of credit... but I don't have any problems with the vote I cast 20 years ago"
- Dick Cheney
"This Week" - 2000
"Considerable number of the ANC leaders are communist... shows what a typical terrorist organization is"
- Margaret Thatcher
Summit in Vancouver
1987
Poster distributed by "Federation of Conservative students" Britain, early 1980's
- David Killingray, 2013
“Did Mandela advocate the overthrow of the government by violence? Yes. Strictly speaking, under the guise of international law, Mandela could certainly be described as a terrorist."

"However, in 1966 the UN General Assembly decreed apartheid a ‘crime against humanity’, perhaps mitigating the argument against terrorism."
Matthew Graham, 2013
FINAL JUDGEMENT AND CONCLUSION
RELEASED FEBRUARY 11 1990
Nelson Mandela and wife Winnie salute to Soweto soccer stadium crowd in 1990
Cover of The Daily Telegraph, February 12th 1990
SYMBOL OF FREEDOM AND RESISTANCE
CONTINUOUS PRESSURE TO RELEASE HIM LOCALLY AND INTERNATIONALLY
RENOUNCE VIOLENCE = RELEASED FROM PRISON
MANDELA =
History of
Apartheid
in South Africa
SOUTH AFRICA colonized - 17TH CENTURY BY THE ENGLISH AND THE DUTCH
1910, Britain handed over this control

gave them independence.

The union of South Africa was formed
1950 - POPULATION REGISTRATION ACT


The ANC publicly announced its existence with 57 bombings on Dingane's Day (16 December) 1961
Mandela gained ideas from illegal literature on guerrilla warfare

He (Mandela) noted that
"strict instructions were given to members of MK that we would countenance no loss of life"
bombing military installations, power plants, telephone lines and transport links at night, when civilians were not present.
AFRIKAANS NATIONAL PARTY HAVE A STRONG MAJORITY - 1948
APARTHEID = CONTROL
MARRIAGE JOBS FACILITIES PUBLIC PLACES
BANTU (BLACK), WHITE AND COLOURED (MIXED)
Table displaying the disproportionate Treatment circa 1978
Mandela can be labeled as a terrorist due to his involvement within the ANC and officiating the use of military tactics and acts of violence for their political pursuit
Mandela can be labeled a communist terrorist because of the time period and the threat of South Africa coming under Communist rule.
HOWEVER...
fighting for justice and had to use violence against a government that was violating human rights
peaceful protesting was not effective
THEREFORE....
Map of South Africa
Map of the Eastern Cape of South Africa
The Church Street bombing
car bomb attack on
20th May 1983
in South African capital Pretoria
The bombing killed 19, including two perpetrators, and wounded 217
one of the largest attacks engaged in by the ANC during its armed struggle.
The
1986
Durban beach-front bombing, a bomb was detonated in a bar, killing three civilians and injuring 69.
Robert McBride received the death penalty for this bombing which became known as the
"Magoo's Bar bombing".
"The South African state is an institutionalized system of repression that is dedicated to preserving the political and economic superiority of an entire racial group."

-Jeffery Herbst, prior to the dismantling of Apartheid, Date unknown.

"As a youth and as a student, Mandela was not especially radical...
It was the invigorating environment of wartime, oppression, and the need to resist apartheid that increasingly drew Mandela into active politics."

- Saul Dubow, 2013
Scan of Mandela's Ethiopian Passport, Source and Date unknown
Soweto Uprising, 1976
Rivonia Trial = 193 acts of sabotage (Government facilities, power plants and crop burning)
Church Street Bombing, 20th May, 1983
The symbol of the Umkhonto We Sizwe
Mandela's actions are equivalent to terrorism due to the nature of his activism and his role in the ANC under the Apartheid Regime
In 1962, using the adopted name David Motsamayi, Nelson Mandela secretly left South Africa.
Visited England = gain support for the armed struggle.
Morocco & Ethiopia = received military training
Returned to South Africa in July 1962
"Said Mandela in his defiant speech of June 1964. 'Passive resistance availed little. An armed state that used violence against its own people invited violent response.'"

- David Killingray, 2013
Full transcript