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Transcript of Imperialism WHAP
AP World History
Imperialism in Africa
Industrialized Nations Accumulate Colonies Around the Globe
Imperialism in Asia and the Pacific
US, GY, and JP Build Empires
Results of Western Imperialism
Local Reactions to Imperialism
Causes of Imperialism
sense of pride and devotion to one's country.
Powerful factor in empire-building
unofficial competition for territory
the need to "catch up"
W. nations used inventions from I.R. to gain upper hand of Africa.
W. EUR reached the interior of AFR for the 1st time.
Natural resources, new markets, and cheap labor drove economic imperialism.
Existing colonies were forced to become export economies. Only grew cash crops- led to monocultures= no diversity in crops, leading to loss of soil fertility.
Ex: Indian cotton (BR) and Chinese opium (BR), and Ceylon tea (DEIC/VOC).
The Misuse of Science
White EUR believed they were doing the people of AFR, AS, and Oceania a favor.
Bringing in the unfortunate of the world (non-EUR) technology was noble.
medicine, education, Christianity
Rudyard Kipling- poet who wrote The White Man's Burden.
Social Darwinism- not a reason for imperialism, but a justification.
Phrenologists (pseudoscientists) measured skull sizes to "prove" mental acuity.
Charles Darwin: survival of the fittest. Herbert Spencer, used this theory (used for traits in animals) to justify EUR and US dominance. Said whites were "biologically superior" to compete victoriously with the other races of the world. Used it to justify imperial actions.
Early Imperialism in Africa
EUR Imperialism in Africa BEFORE the 19th cent.
Classical Era (600 BCE-600CE): Mediterranean coast North of Sahara.
16th cent. Portuguese set up military outposts along both coasts, but NO colonies.
DEIC established a colony at Cape Town, S. AFR
19th C. Imperialism in Africa
Early 19th c. BR begain to send settlers to S. AFR.
Caused tension with Dutch settlers known as Boers.
Increased already existing tension with natives.Boer Wars displaced Afrikaners and Africans from their lands into refugee and concentration camps. Brutal conditions, when mainland BR heard they tried to reform the camps, but still almost 15,000 Africans were killed.
1830s FR colonized Algeria and then most of NW AFR.
Belgium began to "scramble" in the 1880s for the Congo in C. AFR.
By 1914, majority controlled by EUR.
Scramble for Africa
Imperialism in Asia and Pacific
Much more difficult to bring under EUR control.
Asian gov't more stable
Ottoman Empire had a large military
JP also now a major power in Pacific
US Commodore Matthew Perry forces JP to open trade with US in 1853.
JP embraced socio-political and industrial change.
Used w. tech to specialize in silk textiles
However, JP gov't HEAVILY involved in industry.
China was desired only for economic reasons, not land.
Britain and India
Known as the "Jewel in the Crown"
BR won 7 Yrs War w/ FR and won much of S. Asia (w/ BEIC) and Canada.
The East India Company folded and BR gov't began direct control of India until 1947.
They then extended control to Malaysia and Singapore.
LA Purchase 1803
1840s war w/ MX for TX and Pacific Coast territory S. of Canada.
AL from RU in 1867
Several Pacific islands (refueling sations) by 1900
SP-AM War gained Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico
Panama Canal: helped Panama rebel against Colombia in exchange for canal. Good for moving navy and trade.
Meiji Restoration changed make-up of gov't in the 1860s.
Wanted to become more Westernized
Began to aggressively to create their empire.
Sino-Japanese War 1980s: gained Korea
Russo-Japanese War 1905: gained Manchuria
Scramble for Africa in 1885
Social Darwinism: "superior" civilizations deserved to conquer those considered "inferior."
BR attempted to connect N and S AFR colonies.
Cecil Rhodes planned for this.
from Capetown to Cairo
Primarily BR where colonists outnumbered natives.
Through disease and/or conquest: Australia, New Zealand
Native majority w/ colonial rule.
S. Africa, Phil., Algeria
SE Asia: France used combo of military force and diplomacy to control this area.
Malaysia set up treaties for indirect rule.
India: BR used "sepoys" to control the native population.
Led to revolt in 1857 when sepoys pledged loyalty to Mughal Shah.
Hundreds of thousands of casualties.
Put down and BR gov't took full control of India.
Opium Wars in China
BR wanted to trade more w/ CH, but they said no (Qing)
BR began smuggling opium.
CH protested, went to war and lost.
CH forced to sign unfair treaties that increased BR's economic presence and gave them Hong Kong.
Led to others rushing to create Spheres of Influence in China.
gives Eur exclusive trading rights in CH.
US proposed Open Door Policy (b/c we didn't have SoI) and resulted in trading free for all.
Reaction in Africa
FR spend LONG time subduing local rebellions
Dutch Boers in S. AFR rebelled against BR colonial power (Boer War)
BR battled Zulus in S. Afr and Muslims in Sudan
Reluctant acceptance OR full cooperation
Other Africns signed treaties and acted as guides/interpreters.
Ruling AFR elite families cooperation w/ EUR for financial gain.
Many elites went to EUR for education and then returned to begin independence movements.
Reaction in Asia
Afghanistan (against BR)
Philippines (against US)
China (against foreigners)
India (against BR)
many Indian solders remained loyal to BR after Sepoy Rebellion
Siam (Thailand) invited BR representatives to help Westernize Siam (movie: The King and I)
Take up the White Man's burden--
Send forth the best ye breed--
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild--
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.
The Berlin Conference (1884-85) was a meeting among EUR nations to set rules for establishing colonies in AFR. Not Africans were present.
This will effectively divide Africa up into artificial provinces based on EUR nation's ability to control an area.
Belgian Congo is an example of the worst effects of Imperialism.
Nation in 1871
Main goal was to catch up w/ res of EUR.
GY hosted Berlin Conference for ulterior motive of gaining colonies in AFR.
Also gained islands in S. Pacific
Marshalls, Solomis, W. Samoa, Carolines.