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Transcript of Socialization
Mr. James Philip Ray V. Pinggolio
De La Salle University- Dasmarinas Socialization, Conformity and Deviance The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn patterns of their culture. SOCIALIZATION SOCIOBIOLOGY
The role of nature
Elements of society that have a naturalistic root
The role of nurture
Most of who and what we are as a species is learned, or social in nature
Is it sociobiology or behaviorism?
It’s both, but from a sociological perspective, nurture matters more Nature vs. Nurture BASIC HUMAN NEEDS
Eros and Thanatos as opposing forces
FREUD's MODEL OF PERSONALITY
THE ID- Basic drives
THE EGO - Efforts to achieve balance
THE SUPER EGO - Culture within managed conflict
Id and superego are in constant conflict, with the ego balancing the two Sigmund Freud: Elements of Personality THE SELF
The part of personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
Self develops from social experience
Social experience is the exchange of symbols
By taking the role of the other we imagine the situation from the other’s point of view (In another person's shoes)
The I and the Me - by taking the role of the other, we become self-aware (I - subjective; Me-objective) George Herbert Mead:
Social Self DEVELOPMENT OF SELF IMITATION
Infant mimic behavior without understanding intentions
Taking the roles of significant others
Taking the roles of several others at once
Using the widespread cultural norm and values of other people in evaluating ourselves. THE LOOKING GLASS SELF CHARLES HORTON COOLEY
In effects, others are a mirror
A self-image based on how we think others see us.
For example, if we think others see us as clever, we will think of ourselves the same way. AGENTS OF
SOCIALIZATION The family, the school, and other settings have important roles or have special meaning and significance in the socialization process. THE FAMILY MOST IMPORTANT AGENT
A loving family produces a happy well-adjusted child
Family has the greatest impact on attitudes and behavior
A family's social position, including race and social class, shapes a child's personality
Ideas about gender are learned first in the family THE SCHOOL EXPERIENCE DIVERSITY
Racial and gender clustering
GENDER SOCIALIZATION BEGINS
From grade school through college, gender-linked activities are encountered
Informal lessons (competition - winning or losing)
Rules and schedule PEER GROUP A social group whose members have interests, social position and age in common
Peeks during adolescence
Developing sense of self that goes beyond the family
Young and old attitudes and the “generation gap”
Peers often govern short-term goals while parents maintain influence over long-term plans
Practice at working toward gaining desired positions THE MASS MEDIA are the means for delivering impersonal communications aimed at
a vast audience
Television gives young children a lot of information about real and imaginary worlds and about human behavior, but children are adults and can easily misinterpret what they see and hear.
Hours of viewing television
Average household, 7 hours per day
Almost half of their free time
Children average 5 ½ hours per day
Television, VCDs/DVDs The Life Course CHILDHOOD (birth through 12)
The “hurried child” syndrome (children seem growing up too fast)
ADOLESCENCE (the teenage years)
Emotional turmoil attributed to cultural inconsistencies
A time of social contradictions, when people are no longer children but not yet adults
Early: 20-40, conflicting priorities
Middle: 40-60, concerns over health, career and family
OLD AGE (mid-60s and older)
Traditional society give power and respect to elders, Industrial society define elders as unimportant and out of touch
Acceptance of Death and Dying is part of the socialization of the elderly. This process typically involves five stages: Denial, Anger, Negotiation, Resignation and Acceptance. Total Institution A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff. Examples are prisons, mental hospitals and monasteries
ERVING GOFFMAN (1961)
Characteristics of Total Institution
Staff supervise all daily life activities
Environment is standardized
Formal rules and daily schedules Conformity
Means following the acceptable patterns of behavior
The continuity of social life is safeguarded by formal and informal means of social control, censure and punishment of those members who reuse to follow the acceptable patterns of behavior. End :) THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT (Lawrence Kohlberg) Level 1: PRECONVENTIONAL MORALITY (7-10 years)
At this level, the concrete interests of the individual are considered in terms of rewards and punishments.
Level 2: CONVENTIONAL (Conforming) MORALITY (10-13 years)
At this level, people approach moral problems as members of society. They are interested in pleasing others by acting as good members of society
Level 3: POST CONVENTIONAL (13 years and up)
At this level, people use moral principles which are seen as broader than those of any particular society Deviance It is behavior that is perceived as violating some widely shared moral value or norm of a society’s or group’s culture.
It is a product of society: deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms, people become deviant as others define them that way
One may deviate either by resisting social norms or by observing them more fully than the average person Theories of Deviance 1. BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION
In 1876, Caesare Lombroso, an Italian physician who worked in prisons, developed a biological theory of criminality. Criminals are physically distinctive – with low foreheads, prominent jaws and cheekbones, protruding ears, hairiness and unusually long arms resembling human beings’ apelike ancestors. He concluded that criminals are evolutionary throwbacks. At present, his theory is no longer accepted.
2. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
Focuses on abnormalities in the individual personality. If a person has positive self-image and have strong moral values, delinquency and criminality would be prevented.
3. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES
There are 2 basic sociological theories (Robert Merton's Strain Theory and Labeling Theory)
When people find it hard to achieve cultural goals (e.g. getting good grades, getting rich, achieving success) they become deviant.
There are 4 kinds of deviant behavior that people show. Robert K. Merton’s
Use of new or illicit techniques to achieve desired ends.
Example: stealing to gain financial success
A person who cannot achieve valued goals gives up trying but continues to conform to prevailing rules and outward forms to allay the anxieties created by lowered levels of aspiration.
Example: an exam proctor who refuses to allow students to go out during exam even in emergency cases
Total escape from a situation where one cannot achieve desired goals and gives up all sanctioned means to reach them.
Example: dropping out, going into drugs, becoming an alcoholic because one finds it hard to face reality
Results from the frustration generated by very limited opportunities to reach desired goals and leads to alienation from the norms, standards, and institutions by which the goals are normally reached.
Example: joining CPP/NPA Forms of Deviant Behavior
Deviance and conformity result from the process by which individuals are defined or labeled by others.
Labels are self-fulfilling
Labeling someone as "abnormal", "criminal", "gay or lesbian" Labeling Theory