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2nd layer - The Machinery of Advertising

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Cécile Armand

on 27 June 2014

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Transcript of 2nd layer - The Machinery of Advertising

Press advertising
Commodities (1)
Modern Girl/Child assignation

2nd layer - The
Machinery
of Advertising

Verbal devices
Testimonials

1. Commodities (
input
)

3. Medias (
output
)

2. Techniques
US/China boundary
Modern Girl/Child dividing line
Calendar posters (
yuefenpai
)

CMG
(1920-1950s)
CMC
(1940-1950s)
AMG
(late 19th/WWII
pin-up revival)
AMC
(late 19th)
US/Chinese calendar posters dividing line
Moden Girl/Child calendar psoters dividing line
"Normal" US/China dividing line
"Normal" Modern Girl/Child dividing line
Outdoor advertising
The
dually distorted dial
of outdoor advertising
CMG
(before 1920s)
"Normal" US/China boundary
US/Chinese outdoor advertising boundary
Modern Girl/Child outdoor advertising dividing line
"Normal" Modern Girl/Child dividing line
CMC
(1920-1950s)
AMG
(from the 1920s)
AMC
(mostly 1950s)
All these advertising medias
primarily adressed adults
(particularly women)
rather than children

-> How to reach
the actual Modern Child?

Visual devices
Comics

Commercial "tableau"
The bath scene

Background

J. Walter Thompson as a benchmark
A visual genealogy
Italian Renaissance Art (16th)
Aestheticizing eroticism
Orientalism (Early 19th)
Imperialisms (19th)
Impressionisms - Modern Art (Late 19th-Early 20th)
Advertising
hygienic modernity
(Ciarlo, 2011: 8):
Soap as a civilizing agent
The Turkish public bath:
an artistic cliché of exotic eroticism
Aestheticizing the daily life
of ordinary people
Outside
Inside
AMG
CMG
CMC
AMC
US/China boundary
Modern Girl/Child dividing line
US/China boundary
Modern Girl/Child dividing line
US/China boundary
Modern Girl/Child dividing line
Commodities (2)
Global-Local Delimitation





Modern Girl



Common but
differentiated
commodities


Modern Girl/Child
separation
Modern Girl/Child
segmentation


Modern Child




Commodities specific to:





Companies competition
(The case of milk)
Brands differentiation
(Tissues and medicines)
US/China boundary
Modern Girl/Child dividing line
Global Products,
Local adaptations

Global Products,
Local appropriations
(imitations - counterfeits)
Local products,
Global culture?
The twin pattern
The gradual process of local adapations
(
protractor model
)

A one-way or reversible process?

AMG
Foremost

AMC
Hood Sons
CMG
Klim
CMC
Momilk

Dr William's Pink Pills
for Pale People
CMG

CMC


Dr William's
Baby's Own
AMG

AMC


Scott Soft-Weve

Scott Tissue
An always single American Modern Girl?
The Scottissue Twins
The Momilk Twins
CMC
AMC
CMG
The Cigarette Girls Twins
AMG
AMC

Keds'
shoes
1928

Warrior shoes
1948
CMC

CMG

AMG

Lucky Strike
Cigarettes
1951
Hings Fruit
Cigarettes
c. 1950
Mere
Import
Litteral
Translation
180°

270°


90°

45°

135°

225°

315°


360°
Cultural Selection
Brand Renaming

Package Redesigning

Package Resizing

Adaptations of the product
or its uses

New
or
renewed
products and practices?

American "model"/Chinese "copy"
Immaterial alterations (0°-180°) / material alterations (180°-360°)
Gradual process of alteration
Pepsodent
(1926-1931)
USA
China
Listerine
(c. 1935)
Flow direction
Quaker Oats (1921/1935)
Sun Maid Raisins
(1927)
Fast/easy process of transformation
Slow/tough process
Sun Maid Raisins
(1927-1928)
The Chinese rice porridge reinvented...

(1929)
Chinese dried raisins
(1928)
US raisin bread
(1924)
Cultural barriers/impasses
Modern Girl's
Commodities
Modern Girl's
Activities - Times
Modern Girls'
Places - Spaces
Modern Girl's
Companions
To entertain/seduce
To be entertained/seduced
Cosmetics
Cigarettes
Outside
The beauty stage
Men
Heterosexual couples
Women and friends
Groups - Crowds
Alone
American Strand
Chinese Strand
Inside
The anteroom of beauty
Animals
Modern Child's
Commodities
Modern Child's
Activities - Times
Modern Child's
Places - Spaces
Modern Child's
Companions
To grow up
To become strong and healthy
Food - Beverages
Milk - Dairy Products
Body-care
Hygiene products
Inside
Domestic and safe places
Outside
School - Sport - Outdoor activities
Mothers

Babies - The youngest
Others children or adults
School children - Young adults
Alone
The Oldest - Youth - Portraits


Animals

Domestic / Auspicious animals
Mapping the Modern Child's Microcosmos
To play/be happy
(childhood)
To have fun
(youth)
To be educated
To become a responsible adult and a virtuous citizen
Mapping the Modern Girl's Microcosmos
1900
1900
1950
1950
1930
Photo-novel

Chinese-style
manhua

American-style
comic strip

Time flow
CMG
CMC
AMC
1930
1930
1930
AMG
Photo-novel

Comic strip

Non-commercial
illustrations
in Chinese textbooks

Commercial
Comic strip

Comic strip

Aunt Jemina
1934
Chase & Sanborn
1933
Hathaway Baking Co
1930, 1932

Chinese textbook
Late Qing dynasty

Lever Health Soap
c. 1935


Lux Soap
1935
Chinese manhua
1926
Confessions from ordinary people
and
hyperbolic figures
rather than recommendations from scientific experts or
famous personalities.
"
Truth-in-advertising
"
movement in America
(1920-1930s)
Photographic evidence
,
people's names
and
adress
as a guarantee of truth and
children's direct voice
as a proof of sincerity and authenticity.
AMG
CMG
CMC
AMC
"
Voiceless
" children
in China?
Horlicks Malted Milk, 1928
A child speaking to mothers
Hathaway, 1930
A child speaking to other children
Amolin
deodorant
1930


Johnson&Johnson
Baby Powder
1925

Sanatogene, 1936
The Chinese male doctor
advising the Modern Girl

Lux Soap, 1935
The movie star Chen Yanyan
No serious obstacle to the

widespread
use of
gendered

testimonials
from either
male scientists
or
female celebrities
in Modern China
The ideal advertisement would be one
complete in its picture
without one word of text
.
(Crow, 1926: 196)
Background

J. Walter Thompson as a benchmark
Zheng Mantuo (1888-1961)
Yang Guifei Coming from Her Bath

Chinese classical poetry
Bo Juyi (772-846)
More important in China than the US?
Earlier emergence
in China ?
The most efficient medium
to reach the masses
(and thus the children?)

Rooted in the old Chinese tradition of shop signs?
A unique
dual landscape
despite a general trend toward standardization:
small boards/signs adpated to Chinese narrow streets
large standardized billboards influenced by Western advertisement and adapated to large avenues
Simultaenous emergence in the US in the 1920s: and advertising professionals' efforts for creating specific standards and institutions at the time
(US National Outdoor Advertising Bureau, 1926)
In both countries,
various
and
changing
forms of outdoor advertising
Fixed/mobile ads,
posters, wooden signs, painted walls, electrical displays, window displays...
(Crow, 1926: 198)
A general trend from savage "
sniping
" to more controled and restricted methods of display
Cheaper
and
negotiable
rates/taxes in China

A medium adapted to the Chinese high rate of
illiteracy
80-90%
Aimed to supplement press advertising
Crow, 1926: 198
Small and frequent signs are the most adapted to the Chinese people's lower mobility (placing strategies on a community-neighborhood basis)
(Crow, 1926: 198)
Mostly Modern Girls, rarely and later Modern Children
Essentially because of the
nature of the product
usually advertised
= commodities for
adult
consumers
(cigarettes, alcohol, motocars)
Problems regarding
availability
and
traceability

Difficulties for
identifying/dating/locating
the materials
Indirect access
through
street photographs
and other second-hand sources
Short lifecycles
and
limited available space
stimulated
fierce
competition

between companies and
increasing
rates

and taxes
Ford, undated
Shih Yin Cigarettes
1931
Ford, 1978
Street photograph showing billboards
Shanghai, 1932-1933
Street photograph showing billboards, 1920s
Doan syrup,
1929
The even dial of
the press landscape
The dually distorted dial of the press audience
Better documented in the US
Mostly targeting women (adults)
rather than children
Equally important
in China and the US
Equally important
for representing both
the Modern Girl/Child
Anonymous materials, yet precise datation and location,
The dually distorted dial of calendar posters
More popular in China than in the US?
Mostly Modern Girls, rarely Modern Children

(Dal Lago, 2000: 105)
A rare example of ad
which can be accurately
attributed
to its author
who is often identified by his name and sometimes very
famous
at the time:
either individual artists
(Zheng Mantuo)
or artistic studios
(Zhiying studio)
A rare case of highly
visual
and
color
advertisement
Datation
and
location
are most of the times precisely known - even though traceability has been recently challenged by the emergent
market for vintage
calendars on antique markets and their digital expansion on the web

Saturday Evening Post
New York Times
Chicago Herald
Delineator
Salem Evening News
...
Rapid expansion of magazines and tabloids
in the 1920s-1940s

To the extent of overtaking newspapers in the early 1920s (JWT, 1922)
An opportunity to enhance
visual
and
color
-advertising
Spectacular developement of
women
and
children/youth
magazines

Women magazines
Dedicated to both Modern Girl/Child advertising
Ladies' Home Journal
Women's Home Companion
McCall
Pictorial Review
Parents' Magazine
...
Children/Youth Magazines
Childlife
American Boy
American Girl
Youth Companion
...
More focused on youth commodities and directly engaged in the process of building a youth visual culture (comics, fun, sports...)
AMG
CMG
AMC
CMC
An increasing number of
Chinese
or
English
-language
newspapers
since the 19th century
Shanghai Evening Post (Crow)
North China Daily (Millington)
...
Rapid expansion of
magazines
and
tabloids
in the 1920s-1940s
Average leadership < 3,000
(Crow, 1926: 196)
Women magazines
Dedicated to both Modern Girl/Child advertising
Funu zazhi (Ladies' Journal
Funu Shibao (Women Eastern Times)
Liangyou (500,000 in 1933)
Women's Pictorial
...
An increasing number of
national
or
local
newspapers since the 19th century
Shenbao
Xinwenbao
Minguo ribao
...
Chinese dailies
(
ribao
)
60 cities
200 permanent dailies in China
Average readership < 25,000, max. 63,000
(Crow, 1926: 196)
English-language dailies
Average readership < 5,000, max. 10,000
A smaller yet wealthier audience
(Crow, 1926: 196)
Weekly of monthly magazines
Children/Youth Magazines
A rather large, literate and educated audience
A rather
well-documented audience

thanks to the development of
media research
and
frequent readership/audience studies
as early as the 1920s

(JWT Media Research Department)

High rates of
illiteracy

(80-90% in 1926)
yet two "families" of readers:

Difficulties for
estimating
and
identifying
the actual audience
Literate
readers of
textual
information
Illiterate

visual
readers
of advertisements/
commercial information
Mainly women...and children?
Essentially men
Crow, 1926: 196
So large a proportion of the population
being wholly illiterate,
the ideal advertisement
would be
one complete in its picture
without one word of text
.
Chinese practice of
recycling
and passing on papers from one
to four or five families
Very few and scarce
media studies
in the first half of the 20th century
Mostly addressing
Modern Girls (adults)
rather than Modern Children
Mainly for cognitive and literacy reasons
A particularly valuable
and reliable material?
The rare children represented on calendar posters are always accompanied by their mothers
Women are ubiquitous
on calendar posters
A
hybrid
modern commercial art merging
elite/popular
culture
and
Chinese/foreign
elements
to create a unique Chinese experiment with modernity and "
urban exoticism"
(Früehauf, 1990: 294)
Dal Lago, 2000: 105
Commercial

(to help sell a product and
salable themselves for 50-60 US cents)

Practical

(to measure time in daily activities)

Ornemental/Aesthetic
(to decorate Chinese ordinary homes)

Artistic

(a site for artistic creation)

Ideological

(to represent women - children? - as both agent and result of modernity)

Five main functions/purposes:

Crow, 1926: 200
Dal Lago, 2000
Laing, 2004
Various artists and artistic periods
and thus various forms, techniques and styles
The late 1920s-mid 1930s
= the most mature and distinctive pictural character before being replaced by photography?
Dal Lago, 2000: 107
Further expansion in the 1950s
along with the development of
motocar
traffic and highways
(huge billboards)
USA (1920-1950s)
CHINA
(before 1920s?)
Watkins
1917
Lucky Strike
1939
Lactogen
1930s
In the USA,
associated with the popular genre of almanach in the 19th
ONT
1899
Cigarettes,
1930s
American Strand
Chinese Strand
Old North State
undated
Pond's Vanishing Cream
1910
Pond's Vanishing Cream
1920
Golden Dragon
1936
American Strand
Lucky Strike
1951
Chinese strand
Hings Fruit Cigarettes
c. 1950
Woodbury Facial Soap
1916
American strand
Chinese strand
Three Castles Cigarettes
1920
American strand
Chinese strand
American strand
Chinese strand
Colgate
1921
Ponds' Vanishing Cream
1910
Golden Dragon Cigarettes
1936
Gruen Guild Watches
1927
American strand
Chinese strand
Gold Top Cigarettes
1932
Chinese strand
My Dear Cigarettes
1934
American strand
Sun-Maid Nectars
1929
Woodbury Facial Soap
1916
American strand
Chinese strand
Cats (cosmetics)
undated
Hoosier Kitchen
1928
Chinese strand
Golden Safe Cigarettes
1932
Listerine
1956
American strand
Clothing - Shoes
Accessories
Games - Toys - Sports Educational Products
American strand
Foremost Milk
1931
American strand
Aunt Jemina Rag dolls
1925
Chinese strand
Chinese kites
1917
American strand
Keds' shoes
1927
Chinese strand
Warrior shoes
1948

American strand
Swift Wool Soap
1920
Chinese strand
Colgate Soap
1921
Chinese strand
Momilk
1926
American strand
Foremost Milk
1929
Chinese strand
Colgate Soap
1921
American strand
Hathaway Baking Co.
1930
Foramint
1931
Chinese strand
American strand
Horlicks Malted Milk
1928
Chinese strand
The Rat Cigarettes
1933
American strand
Foremost Milk
1929-1930
Chinese strand
Instant Postum Beverage
1931
American strand
Horlicks' Fitness
1928
Chinese strand
1936
American strand
Freihofer's Fine Bread
1925
Foramint
1931
Chinese strand
American strand
Aunt Jemina
1936
Chinese strand
Klim Milk
1931
American strand
Keds' shoes
1926
Bicycle
1931
Chinese strand
Chinese strand
1936
American strand

Sun-Maid Raisin Bread
1925
The press is said to be
one of
the most effective
advertising medium
both in the US and China
in the 1920s-1930s,
yet
did modern children
actually
read
newspapers
and magazines?
Could advertisers
rely on the other
types of media available at the time?
Commercial
calendars?
Outdoor
advertising?
Can we rely on these commercial images?
Advertisement for
Sunday New York American
1927
Advertisement for Liangyou
1932
Palmolive Soap
1950
Swift Wool Soap
1920
Colgate
1921
Girl Brand
Florida Water
1930s
...by Quaker Oats,
the Western
"Good Spirits of the Corn"
imported from
"the Land of Long Ago"
(c. 1921)
Full transcript