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NURS 150 Group 5 Presentation 2013

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Stephanie Licacho

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of NURS 150 Group 5 Presentation 2013

Nursing Uniforms Through the Ages
Uniforms During WWII
Post World War Era - 1950's
Present Day Nursing Uniforms: SCRUBS
Presented by Alvina, Amninder, Jasmina, Stephanie and Vivien
Early History and Influences Prior to 1900's
Uniforms in the Early 20th Century
Nurses wore servant’s uniform
With white gathered or banded cap
A long print dress with a white apron
Nurses began to work for wealthy households

Nursing profession started to gain more respect
Were trained made to work at city or local health board
They wore ladylike gowns with white aprons and caps

During WWI...
Brought great changes in nursing uniform
Functionality became the most important feature
Rolled up sleeves for easier movement and shirt shortened for convenience
Hats start to show influence of nun’s coif brought the uniform a further semblance of borrowed respectability

Uniform System was designed
Newly trained nurses needed to be respected and recognized
Nurses walked the streets in poor neighborhood wearing cloaks, coats, and warm hats then changed into their pretty white “indoor” hats and apron

WW1 US Army Nurse’s outdoor Uniform
The army nurse wears the caduceus
The winged staff and serpents of Medical Corps with letter “U.S.” on her outdoor uniform
She is permitted to retain red cross insignia on her service cap if she entered the Army Nurse Corps

A ward uniform with Red Cross
brassard, cap insignia and pin

The famous red-lined cape of dark blue, worn by the Red Cross nurse with the red lining exposed over one shoulder

Grey cotton crepe uniforms were made necessary by the laundry problem
The American Red Cross brassard worn only by those nurses serving directly under the Red Cross

& so the history and evolution of nursing uniforms is complete!
... OR IS IT?

Should we go back to wearing uniforms?
Will scrubs be a thing of the past?
Just something to think about :)


The nurse uniforms during the World War II were still white in color
Not as bulky as earlier.

In 1936 bib, apron and long sleeve cuffs were still standard in the nursing
Caps were too small
As a symbolic identification

On 1942 in London, the long sleeves were cut short.
The long sleeves didn’t really totally go off because puff sleeves remained in the scene.

Group of Army Nurses of the 10th Field Hospital, in 1943, wore military-inspired multi-pocketed tops and pants.

When the University of Pittsburgh was authorized to organize a unit of the United States Cadet Nurse Corps in 1943, a new uniform appeared. It was a gray wool suit or overcoat with regimental red epaulets, silver insignia buttons, a sleeve patch with a silver Maltese Cross on a red ground, and an adaptation of the famous Montgomery beret.

The hemline falls just below the knee, and the sleeves were much shorter than those of the previous nursing uniforms

Inside camps where temporary hospitals were erected, army nurses continue to provide patient care to wounded soldiers and civilians of the Second World War. In this photo from 1943, two colors of the army nursing uniforms were worn in different ways, tucked and not tucked, and matched with complementary nurse caps.

1943 nursing uniforms designed and manufactured by Barco.

They wear short sleeved nursing uniforms, which became largely used in other hospitals around Canada.

The British nurses still wore the cuffed long sleeved uniforms and aprons with the crisscross design at the back. And with the first aid kit hanging at the back of their waist, they surely proved to always be ready.

Blanche, J. (2010, November 2). Nursing 50 Years Back and Today: How the Nursing Field has
Changed Over the Last 50 years. Healthecareers. Retrieved from http://www.healthecareers.com/article/nursing-50-years-back-and-today-how-the-nursing-field-has-changed-over-the-last-50-years/158432

DutchgirlRN. (2008). The history of Scrubs. Retrieved from http://justusnurses.com/forum/f155/

Jacksonville University School of Nursing (2013). The Evolution of Nursing Scrubs. Retrieved
from http://www.jacksonvilleu.com/nursing-degree-resources/evolution-nursing-scrubs/

Littlejessmo. (2012, July 20). Paper Nurse hat [video]. Retrieved from
Scrubs Editor, (2013, August 16). Nursing style history: What should nurses wear?. Scrubs. Retrieved from http://scrubsmag.com/nursing-style-history-what-should-nurses-wear/

Unknown. (2010). Changes in Nursing Uniforms Over the years. Retrieved from http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/changes-in-nursing-uniforms-

Unknown. (2013). The History of Medical Scrubs. Retrieved from http://www.nationalscrubs.com/history-of-medical-scrubs-a/269.htm
The Early History and Influences
Prior to 1900's

The earliest nursing uniforms' were the working clothes of nuns and monks

For example the Sisters of Charity (The Grey Nuns)
Deaconesses of Kaiserwerth Institute
opened by Theodor and Friederike Fliedner in 1836
Image of students was very important
Florence Nightingale studied at the Kaiserwerth institute !!
Florence Nightingale was also a strong believer in a professional nursing image, which included a standard uniform
As more and more nursing schools started to open, the uniform became an expression of the school and its values
The basic pieces included a long cotton dress of the later 1800's (preferred over the heavy materials); a starched collar, sleeves or cuffs; a white apron; and CAPS!
Although headpieces were very common, the 'standard nursing cap' came about in the 1870's with the opening of the Bellevue Training School
The nursing uniform was key in establishing nursing as a respectable and important profession
The students from the nursing schools literally wore the values and beliefs of the schools they belonged to
You might have thought about this image...
Or this...
Maybe even a little of this?

When you think of a nurse, what IMAGE immediately comes to mind?

As you can see, the concept of nursing uniforms can cause a bit of

But don't you worry! Because today, you will know everything you need to know about nursing uniforms!
We'll be focusing on the
of nursing uniforms in 5 different eras...

Think of it as an
of nursing uniforms throughout the years!
Pride, Honor.
Respect, Intellect,
Identity, Belonging, Equality,
Gratitude, Servitude
Loyalty, Discipline,
You get it - a nurse's uniform is important!

Bates, C. (2010). Looking closely: material and visual approaches to the nurse's uniform.
Nursing History Review, 18, 167-188. doi:10.1891/1062-8061.18.167
Bork, D. (2002). The life story of Friederike Fliedner. International History of Nursing
Journal, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, 7(2), 60-67.
Catanzaro, S. (2013). Evolution of uniforms to cater for the needs of staff and patients. Nursing
Management – UK, 19(9), 24-25. Retrieved from http://www.nursingmanagement.com
Houweling, L. (2004). Image, function and style: a history of the nursing uniform, 104(4), 40-48.
Retrieved from http://www.nursingcenter.com
Pearson, A., Baker, H., Walsh, K., & Fitzgerald, M. (2001). Contemporary nurses' uniforms-
history and traditions. Journal of Nursing Management, 9(3), 147-152. doi:10.1046/j.
Spragley, F., & Francis, K. (2006). Nursing uniforms: professional symbol or outdated relic?
Journal of Nursing Management, 37(10), 55-58. Retrieved from

Before we can talk about the history of nursing uniforms, we should discuss the
behind a nurse's uniform.



In ONE word, what did a nurse's uniform SYMBOLIZE?
What happened to the nurse's uniform AFTER the war?
Consider the following key events and attitudes during this time:

Attitudes: No more war... I'm free!

Less government restrictions on fabrics.

[During the war, fabrics were reserved for the army]

Clothing and fashion industry boomed and flourished.
New trends in fashion and hairstyles popped up.

Believe it or not, this lead to major changes in the nurse's uniform.

Can you guess how the nurse's outfit looked like during this time frame?

Welcome to
The end of World War 2 opened for an enthusiastic clothing industry, even integrating
in nursing uniforms.

It was an era of

Why was fashion integrated? Uniforms had to keep up with the
at that time.

Since profession of nursing was on the rise, uniforms had to be
, so designs were kept simple yet still emphasized style
Key Design Features of the 1950's
Uniform consisted of:

or 3/4th along the arm just touching the elbows.

Length of sleeves compensated for a

to cover up their rolled-up sleeves

Modest neckline and cut. Notice the
, those were big in the 60's!

replaced older aprons

Features of the TOP
Features of the SKIRT
skirts that fell to the knee were popular

Skirts had
and had

Complimented with
to emphasize practicality

Skirts kept declining in length in the 1960's

Caps were either

Caps were
in size. Why is that?

were popular and trendy at the time. Makes sense for caps to decrease in size!

Some argue that the cap lost its FUNCTION, but it still had
during this 1960's.

Features of the HAT
Invasion of the PLASTICS:

replaced cotton caps

replaced cotton aprons.

Easier to maintain & nurses didn't have to worry about constantly starching them because it really was

Also in the 1980's, outerwear began to disappear.

1970's and 80's
Nurse caps had a major part in identifying the nurse role and portrayed a sense of neatness, pride, and honor.

Caps started to disappear by the late 1980s.
These are some of the reasons:

Women's rights and inequality
: covering the head meant a woman's subservience to men.
More men in nursing
Loss of function
-> caps as a potential carrier for bacteria.

So what happened to the cap?

Be it crown or diadem/
It can never compare/
With the little cap of white/
... For that signifies all/
That a life is dedicate/
To easing pain and sorrow/
...So let us give it honor/
In its varied shape and style,/
...And although their caps may differ/
Yet the intent is the same --/
To bring back health and happiness/
To the sick and to the lame.

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Bates, C. (2013). Let clothes tell stories – focus on the nurse’s uniform [web]. Retrieved from Website


Bates, C. (2010). Looking closely: material and visual approaches to the nurse’s uniform. Nursing History

Review, 167-188. Doi: 10.1891/1062-8061.18.167

Lorrain School of Nursing. (2012). History of the nursing cap [web]. Retrieved from Website


Nursing Link. (2012, July 02). Historic nursing uniforms: the good, the bad and the ugly [web]. Retrieved from Website


PulseUniform. (2013). Nursing uniforms of the past and present [web]. Retrieved from Website


Sayers, I. (2013). SMOC Canadian nurse’s uniform from WWI [YouTube video]. Retrieved from Website

WebMC LLC. (2013). What happened to the cap? Part 1: Dignity and dedication [web]. Retrieved from Website

Byrd, R. (2008, August 14). A History of Nursing Uniforms[webpage]. Retrieved
from http://ezinearticles.com/?A-History-of-Nursing-Uniforms&id=1410587

My Nursing Uniforms-The History of the Nursing Uniform from 19th Century Onward
[webpage]. (2009, November20). Retrieved fromhttp://www.affgoo.com

Nursing Uniforms.Net (n.d). A History of Nursing Uniforms [webpage]. Retrieved from A
Nurse’s World blog:http://www.nursinguniforms.net/blog/the-history-of-nursing- uniforms#sthash.Ex4WBRpT.dpuf

Yeng, J. (n.d.). Nursing Uniforms: Why They Matter [webpage]. Retrieved from

August 29, 2013. Nursing Uniforms Through Years. Retrieved
from http://www.vrd2003.org/archives/nursing-uniforms-through-the-years.php

2013. Nurse uniforms of the past and present- Nurse uniform
history. Retrieved from http://www.pulseuniform.com/nursing/nursing-uniforms.asp

The spanish flu epidemic of 1918 brought awareness of infection control initiated the use of sterile clothing

Scrubs got their name because of they were used in the surgical room which was a sterile or "scrubbed" environment

Traditional nursing uniforms are still being used in developing countries
Surgical scrubs or Nursing scrubs are now the uniform of choice for nurses in many hospitals and care settings.

Original color of surgical scrubs were white but were later changed to a shade of green because it was easier on the eyes
Now many different colors and designs are available
Scrubs were more gender neutral allowed for better functionality and comfort for nurses and many other health care professionals
Nursing caps are not used much in practice anymore

The removal of hats allowed for better infection control because they were a carrier for bacteria. And it was more functional in clinical practice.

Nursing caps are more symbolic nowadays are still given away for nursing graduates
The use of medical scrubs by Health care professionals, including nurses, began in the 80's

The use of pants instead of skirts allowed for more movement and pockets provided areas to keep tools such at easy access
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