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Acute and long term responses to exercise on the body
Transcript of Acute and long term responses to exercise on the body
Acute Reponses to exercise
The Musculoskeletal system is responsible for movement and it is made up of a system of Muscles, Tendons, Ligaments, Cartilage and bones. It is operated by the nervous system which is controlled by the brain this creates voluntarty movements such as throwing a ball. movement is created by muscles contacting, they are initated by the nervous system.
The skeletal system provides structure for the body
Increased Blood supply
The body needs more oxygen therefore the blood supply is increased to meet the demands of the muscles to make sure they can continue to work enabling you to carry on with your exercise whether it be Continous exercise or Resistance training.
Increased muscle Pliability
Muscles become more pliable when they become warm and this helps reduce the risk of injury. This is due to when muscles contract quickly during exercise. These contractions generate heat which in turn makes the muscles more pliable
Increased Range of Movement
When you exercise there are changes that occur within the joints, the synovial fluid becomes less viscous which means the range of movement at the joint in increased. As you exercise the muscles begin to extend which allows the joints to move further
Muscle Fibre Micro Tears
Micro tears occur when the muscles are under pressure whilst exercising. Micro Tears cause swelling which puts pressure on the nerve endings which then causes pain. To strenghten muscles a number of specific training methods can be used e.g. Hypertrophy however enough time to rest is very important to allow these Micro tears to heal and the muscles to refuel before training them again
All living beings need energy! We need energy to move, energy is created in different ways, this is dependent on the duration and intensity of the exercise
The Phosphocreatine is the immediate energy system for exercises that are instantaneous or of a high intensity. It is used up very quickly. Creatine Phosphate has a high energy bond, when this bond is broken it releases energy this energy is used to re-synthesize ATP from ADP. The engery from this system can be replaces very quickly therefore the body is able to serveral short bursts without becoming fatigued
Lactic Acid System
This is a short term system that is required to provide energy for high intensity for a longer period of time than the PC system. Just like the PC system this occures without the use of oxygen so it cannot be maintained over a long period of time. This energy system works by converting pyruvcate acid which is produced by glycolysis of glucose into lactate. The ATP created in this system allows the muscles to work at high intensity to the point that the lactate reaches toxic levels which causes the muscles to fatigue.
The Aerobic energy system requires oxygen therefore can produce energy over a long period of time. This system occurs in mitochondria in cells which converts food to energy. Glycolysis, the link reaction, the Krebs cycle and the Electron transport train make up the metabolic reactions called aerobic respiration. This system produces large amounts of ATP however it takes a long time in doing so compared to the other energy systems, this is due to the fact that the heart has to deliver oxygenated blood to all the muscles and this can take time
When a person exercises they require a contant supply of oxygen and nutrients to their muscles as well as the CO2 that is produced as a waste product to be removed. It is down to the heart to make sure these demands are met, therefore it beats faster to keep up with the demands of the muscles.
Activity Response is similar to Anticipatory Rise (where the heart rate is increased before exercise to cope with the demands). At the start of exercise, the nerves in the brain send out chemical signals to increase heart rate as well as the strength the heart is pumping. This means more blood which means more oxygen is going to the muscles around the body. Blood flow is also altured to make sure that the muscles the require the greater amount of oxygen demands are met.
Increased blood pressure
During exercise both the heart rate and blood pressure increases however there are mechanisms that make sure that the blood pressure does not go too high. The reason that Blood pressure increased is due to the increased oxygen consumption and heart rate during exercise to meet the demands of the activity that is being undertaken.
This is the regulation of body temperature; the Cardiovascular system controls Thermoregulation. If the body temperature rises then the blood vessels near the surface of the skin dilate (increase in their size), due to the greater surface area the heat can dissipate more efficiently. This is important when exercising as when you exercise your muscles generate heat and if the body even changes by a few degrees then it can make you very ill, some consider this to be the most important facter in people having to stop exercising
Breathing is controlled by the brain, it is sensitive to pH levels in the blood it getting the information from chemoreceptors which detect change in pH levels around the body, the change in pH indicates a change of CO2 concentration.
Increased Breathing Rate
The Pulmonary Ventilation increases during exercise which in turn increases the depth and rate of breathing. In reaction to this the inspiratory center stimulates the inspiratory muscles. As the intensity of the exercise increases the depth of which you breath decreases and the rate at which you breath increases.
Tidal Volume increases
This increase occurs because the breathing rate is increased due to the increased demand of oxygen for the respiring muscles. increaseing tidal volums allows a greater intake of oxgygen and exhalation of CO2
Long term adapations to exercise
This is the thickening of the heart muscle, due to the fact that the heart is a muscle it can be trained like any other muscle to increase size. As the heart gets bigger it stroke volume is increased therefore allowing it to pump more blood in one contraction.
Increase in cardiac output
Cardiac output will increase after long term exercise due to the combination of the increased heart rate and increase in stroke volume. Cardiac output is the amount of blood that can be pumped by the heart in a single minute. Doing long term exercise as the heart effectivelt becomes more efficent, due the factors such as an increase in stroke volume.
Decrease in Resting heart rate
The resting heart rate is the rate of which your heart beats in one minute when at rest. After long term exercise the heart rate decreses because the Cardiac output is increased, this mean the heart can pumb the same amount of blood around the body with fewer beats than someone who has not undertaken long term exercise
A long term effect of exercise is that the body creates more capillaries. This means that there is an increased flow of blood in the body. This increase means that the blood flow will be able to distribute oxygen faster as there is more surface area for it to distributed around the body. It also means that they body can remove CO2 faster.
Decrease in Recovery time
This is basically how long it take for the heart to reach resting rate after exercise. The reason for this is that since the heart is more effective at pumping oxygenated blood around the body, once the demand reduces then it can slow down faster as it can already cope at a lower rate due to an increased in cardiac output.
Increase in Aerobic Fitness
This is simply due to other adaptations i have previously spoken about. The body is more equipped to deal with prolonged exercise, a way of assessing this would be the bleep test
This is where there is an increase to muscle size. This means there is an increase of contractile proteins within the muscle. When a person does resistance training they cause micro tears in the muscles, when these repair they actually repair stronger than before to compenstate so that they are able to lift that weight without causing micro tears. This is some thing that weight lifters can take advantage of, if they can time the recovery period correctly then they will increase their effeciency in training
Increase of Myoglobin Stores
This is due to the body adaption inself so that when you are exercise you recieve more oxygen therfore allowing you to exercise for longer. This means that when you take part in continuous exercise then the muscles that require oxgyen will receive it more effeciently as their are more myoglobin to carry the oxygen.
Increase in Tendon strength
As the muscles get bigger the tendons must get stronger, this is because they are what connects muscle to bone. due to the muscles getting stronger the tendons therefore need to aswell, they will need to cope with greater pressures, if they do not increase in size it an cause damage to the muscles. They become stronger due to the increased amount of collagen fibres
Increased levels of Mitochondria
This is where muscles increase their oxidative capacity due to the increase of mitochondria. This is how muscles adapt themselfs to long term exercise, it means that they are able to maintain an activity for longer periods of time. Since mitochondria is where ATP is made it means their is a greater supply of energy during Aerobic exercise
Increase in Bone Calcium Stores
exersice increases the rate that osteoblasts strengthen the bones, they use calcium to do this therefore increasing the calcium stores. No exercise slows the process down so any exercise increases bone strength
Increased Flexibilty in Ligaments
A long term response to exercise is that ligaments become more flexible, this happens because the body recovers by putting down more collagen which is a protein that supports body tissue. Collagen will mak the ligaments more stable, strongher and more flexible at all joints.
Increased Vital Capacity
A long term adaptaion of exercise is that the vital capacity is increased. Long term training will allow you to increase the maximum that you can inhale and exhale however it is not significatly increased.
Increase in minute Ventilation
This is the amount of air that a person breathes in a minute. This is mainly done through breathing rate, it is a measure of the the amount of air that passes through the lungs. It increases due to the depand of oxygen when exercising, over time it will increase.
Increased strength of Respiratory muscles
The respiratory muscles become stronger as a response to long term exercise. This allows for greater chest expansion as the intercostal muscles are stronger. Also the diaphragm becomes stronger alowing a more forceful inhale and exhalation
Increase in Oxygen Diffusion rate
this is a long term effect of exercise. It is bacially the lungs effeciency to exchange CO2 with oxygen, with long term exercise this will increase as a reaction of the great need for oxygen in the body and the removal of CO2
Increased Aerobic and Anaerobic Enzymes
Both enzymes are used in the production of ATP as they it breakdown into a fuel source. The increased amount of these enzymes means that more ATP can be used to give you more energy this in turn mean that you will be able to exercise for longer.
Increased use of Fat as a energy source
Fat oxidation increased after long term exercise, this is because fats are stored in large molecules which are harder to break down however fat provides more ATP than Carbohydrates so the body oxidizes fat so it can be broken down. This more commen with aerobic training and this is why a marathon runner will have little to no fat content due to their ability to use fat as an energy source
By Curt Brown