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Transcript of 2
Radon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble gases. It is inert to most common chemical reactions, such as combustion, because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons. This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are tightly bound. History Radon was first identified as a unique substance in 1900 only four years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in Paris in 1896. Ernest Rutherford early in 1900 while working with thorium oxide, found that in addition to the ionization from alpha and beta radiations there was an additional ionizing gas diffusing from thicker layers of the thorium compounds. This was the thorium emanation or thoron as it came to be called. A few months later in 1900, Friedrich Ernst Dorn while studying radium salts observed a similar radioactive gas which he referred to as radium emanation or radon as it is now known. Sources In Nature The origin of radon and thoron in the Earth's crust stems directly from the uranium and thorium and their decay products distributed in minute amounts in the ground within a few meters of the Earth's surface. Once formed in or on the rocks and soil particles the radon atoms must reach the air in the soil capillaries before they can be transported to the atmosphere through diffusion or pressure-induced flow. Indoors Soil
Natural gas and other sources Effects Health Lung Cancer Childhood Leukemia There is some evidence that excessive radon exposure can increase the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. One study demonstrated a 56% increase in the rate of this type of leukemia per 1000 Bq/m3-years increase in exposure. Other Effects Pancreatic Cancer
Chronic interstitial pneumonia
Respiratory lesions Environmental In Water Just as radon can move up through soil to the air above, it can sink into groundwater or enter water systems such as lakes and rivers. The effects of radon and radon decay products on aquatic life are unknown, as are the effects of ingesting fish contaminated with radon decay products. The greater danger of radon in water systems is its potential to enter buildings through tap water before breaking down. In Soil Radon enters the soil from uranium deposits. It also enters the soil through uranium and phosphate mines and through coal combustion. Because radon has a relatively short half-life of less than four days, some radon will break down into radon decay products in the soil. Control In Homes RRNC
Plastic Sheeting or Vapor Retarder
A Vent Pipe
Sealing and Caulking
Junction Box In Water Find out whether your water system gets its water from a surface (river, lake, or reservoir) or a ground water (underground) source :
If the water comes from a surface water source, most radon that may be in the water will be released to the air before it makes its way to your tap.
If the water comes from a ground water source, call your water system and ask if they've tested the water for radon. Content Preface
What is radon?
Control Health The primary health effect of radon is lung cancer. When radon decay products are inhaled they will stick to sensitive lung tissue. Being short-lived, they will break down while they are in the lungs, thereby exposing the lung tissue to radiation. Lung Cancer Thank You Preface Radon is a naturally radioactive inert gas that becomes a hazard only when found in concentrations such as those encountered in unventilated uranium mines. The fact that it is mildly radioactive, and does not combine with other gases, makes it unique as a tracer for the studying of a number of processes in the indoor and outdoor atmospheres.
The discovery of radon, its characteristics, and sources in the environment as well as methods of control are described with in the few coming pages. Possible health effects from extended exposure at high levels of concentration are treated also. A few months later in 1900, Friedrich Ernst Dorn while studying radium salts observed a similar radioactive gas which he referred to as radium emanation or radon as it is now known. Granular Activated Carbon