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Planning a fitness training session

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junaid khaliq

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of Planning a fitness training session

Planning a fitness training session
Learning outcome 2
Cardiovascular training
When planning cardiovascular training and exercise intensities ..essential to see them as training zones
Resistance training
Choice of exercises
Number of exercises
Fat burning zone
Cardiovascular training
Cardiovascular training
'Target' heart rate zone
Frequency, intensity, time and type
FITT principle
FITT principle
- relates to the length of your training session
When planning sessions you should consider a number of different factors
Anaerobic threshold
When planning sessions .. need to consider the type of individual you are working with
How would you plan a fitness training session for different individuals??
Resistance training
Systems of training
Resistance training
Rest between sets
Cardiovascular training
Monitoring intensity
Flexibility training sessions often complement resistance training (vice versa)
Flexibility training
Flexibility training
Choice of exercises
Flexibility training
Order of exercises
Speed training
Requirements of speed training are geared towards specific sports and specific positions within those sports
Speed training

Speed training
Work rest ratio
- of a training session or programme ..refers to number of sessions per week
- of a programme is closely linked with overload principle
Intensity and duration is more important then frequency
Novice trainers should not train more then three times per week .. until fitness levels can cope with increased training load
Can progress to 5x when individual fitness levels have increased
How hard you are working during training
Important factor when designing a training programme and relates to factors - weight, distance, HR % and speed
- type of exercise you complete will be related to individual needs.. mode of training you complete i.e free weight training
Require knowledge of each of their circumstances to plan the right type of session
Not uncommon for PT's to work with combo of trained, untrained and elite athletes
Warm up or cool down zone
Zone at 50% of maximum heart rate and mainly for the sedentary or unfit person
The first cardiovascular training intensity
Active recovery zone
Approx 60% of maximum heart rate
Useful for aiding recovery .. removing waste products and provides good step for those new to cardiovascular training
Fat burning (managing weight zone) is at 60-70% max heart rate
Progression from moderate aerobic zone once fitness levels have increased
Also used for athletes training for long distance events .. can use continuous training in this zone
Aerobic fitness zone
70-80% of maximum heart rate
Zone where you develop your aerobic endurance
Suitable for active/trained individuals
What to expect
A training session plan – also called a learning plan – is an organised description of the activities and resources you'll use to guide a group toward a specific learning objective
Occurs at approx 6-75% maximum HR (can go to 85%)
Has the greatest benefits for cardio health and improving body's ability to use fat as energy source
Peak performance zone
Occurs at 80-90% maximum HR and is the highest zone of cardio training
Geared towards competitive sport and will develop speed
Use fartlek and interval training when training through aerobic fitness and peak performance zones
Alters anaerobic threshold
Cardiovascular training
Hot, tight and achy legs are a sign of anaerobic threshold
The point where you can no longer meet your energy requirements of exercise (using aerobic energy) .. so body produces energy using anaerobic systems
When blood lactate levels increase significantly
Training at high % of maximum HR helps increase this threshold .. allowing you to train at high intensities and longer durations whilst using aerobic systems
Not suitable for inexperienced trainers because .. training close to anaerobic threshold stresses your cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular training
Session intensity must be monitored to ensure effectiveness and to ensure client is not at risk
Common methods -
Observing the client
The talk test
Rating perceived exertion
Age predicted maximum HR Karvonen formula
Observations are subjective but useful ways of monitoring progress
Look for changes in exercise technique, skin colour, changes in breathing patterns and excessive sweat levels
Talk test
American college sport medicine - if you are able to hold a conversation at same time as breathing rhythmically whilst exercising .. you are working at acceptable levels for cardio training
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
Cardiovascular training
Scale that runs from 6-20 and reflects HR's that range from 60-200 BPM
Maximum HR
Monitoring HR helps assess work rate .. are you working hard enough or can you work harder
Use max Hr and karvonen formula to set target training zones
Use HR monitors to monitor HR and ensure you are in correct training zones
Resistance training
Find out primary goal before beginning resistance training session
Variety of training sessions : improve power, muscle size or muscle endurance
What does each training session implement?
Advise working on one outcome per session for maximal results
Resistance training
Huge variety of exercises to choose from
Ensure the exercise meets the needs of the individual and the sport..
Keep exercises simple
Resistance exercises - core or assistance
Focus on large muscle areas
Involve two or more joints
Have more impact on sporting movements
Focus on smaller areas
Involve one joint
Less importance when improving sporting performance
Resistance training
Number of exercises depends on your training goal
To many exercises can lead to injury .. how?
When using more then one exercise for an area .. make sure you alternate exercises with other areas
Order of exercises
Different ways to structure your resistance training session
Structure exercise to create as much force as possible in each exercise .. but maintain correct technique and allow rest
Common techniques used to order exercises
Techniques used to order exercises:
- Complete core exercises before assistance exercises
- Have exercises that alternate upper and lower body exercises
- Alternate push and pull activities
Importance of ordering exercises?
Speed of movement
Not only repetitions, sets, weight and rest that influence training session
Speed of movement is also important
Slow and controlled contractions will move the joint through full ROM .. and develop highest force
Results in greater strength gains
Start to end of ROM -4 seconds Return to start point - 2 seconds
Importance of resting between sets?
Exercising when tired results in poor technique and performance
Allow recovery between sets for health, safety and performance
Different systems deigned to be used by novice and experienced trainers
Super sets
Involve performing two or more exercises for the same muscle group in a row or working opposite muscle groups and muscle areas
Resistance training
Form of multiple set training and develops different components of fitness depending on ascending or descending pyramids
Resistance training
Simple circuit
Consists of 8-10 exercises .. 15-20 repetitions .. and 40-60% resistance of repetition max
Uses range of multi joint exercises and works with major muscle groups
Useful for beginners because smaller muscle groups can be worked along with larger muscle groups.. also develop exercise technique
Adjust system by altering number of times circuit is performed, number of repetitions, resistance used and number of exercises
Ascending - light to heavy weight Descending - heavy to light weight
Descending pyramid is more advanced so suited for experienced strength trainers
Because they both improve muscle shape and size
Factors to consider when designing flexibility training sessions
- The choice of exercises
- The number of exercises
- The order of exercises
- The number of repetitions
- The time
Flexibility training
Relate choice of exercises to your aims or the aims of client
Choose from static, ballistic and dynamic flexibility exercises
Well designed flexibility session bases choice of exercises on results of flexibility tests
Identify weaknesses and focus on them
Number of exercises
Flexibility sessions should include 10-12 exercises
Structure exercises so session works different areas of the body to reduce risk of injury
Also so that exercise gets progressively harder to overload the body
Example .. dynamic flexibility sessions should start with low speed movements .. replicate sporting actions but don't stretch muscle to maximum ROM
Sessions should get progressively faster and ROM to be pushed further gradually .. until reach you full speed movements .. that push limits of flexibility
Beginners start by using three repetitions per exercise .. .. as flexibility increases aim to increase to five repetitions per exercise
Spend 15-30 minutes on average .. depending on type and number of exercises performed
Each stretch = held between 6-60 seconds depending on type of stretch
Ex - static stretching - up to 60s .. PNF - 6s contraction ..10-30s assisted stretching
Speed training
Time/distance of sprint dependent on sporting choice
Team sports .. acceleration more important then speed (maximum speed is at 50 metres)
Team sports - training over distances of 10-30m .. 800m sprinter (extended sprint athlete) - training of 400m at 2-3 seconds faster then race pace
Number of repetitions dependent on sport
Team sports - 10 repetitions per set .. Extended sprint athlete - 4 repetitions
Typical speed training session .. 5-10 reps when aiming to develop maximum speed
Depending on time, distance and repetitions .. use between 1-5 sets during speed training session
Rest between sets
Depending on intensity, repetitions and sets you are using ... may require rest periods of 1-3 minutes
Rest periods are essential to replenish energy stores, maintain correct technique and mimise injury risk
General guideline = work rest ratio of 1:5 .. 10s maximal sprint .. followed by 50s rest period
Interval training used in both running based cardio training and speed training .. use following table to plan for different energy systems
Overview of learning outcome 2
Learning outcome 2
Cardiovascular training - exercise intensities,
Resistance training
Flexibility training
Speed training
What factors do you have to take into account?
What type of training sessions can you do?
Way of measuring physical activity intensity level
Karvonen formula
Cardiovascular training
Suggested to find target heart rates and training zones
Uses MHR and RHR to calculate your heart rate reserve
Karvonen suggested that training intensity between 60 - 75 % of MHR is suitable for average athlete
Training heart rate intensity (zone) calculated ...
Training heart rate % x (HRR) = (RHR)
Bill - RHR 60.. told to train between 60-75% of MHR
Training heart rate = 60% ... 0.60 (200-60) + 60 = 144 bpm
Training heart rate = 75% ??????
0.6 (HRR) + RHR
0.60 (200 - 60) + 60
84 + 60
Simple circuit = novice .. pyramids = experienced trainers
Use systems when planning resistance training sessions for yourself or clients
Consider goals of client as key indicator for appropriate system
Each system has different benefits but main aim is to help you reach overload which will enable you to meet training goals
In weight training sessions, people lift weights to develop strength and muscle tone
Circuit weight training adds an aerobic element, which provides a cardiovascular workout
Lose weight, add muscle tone, and improve their cardiovascular health
Utilises an upward, then downward sequence in weight, reps or sets to help you maximize your weightlifting goals
Ascending Pyramids:
Increase the weight and decrease the reps for each set.
•Set 1 – light weight: 12-16 reps
•Set 2 – light/medium weight: 10-12 reps
•Set 3 – medium weight: 8-10 reps
•Set 4 – heavy weight: 4-6 reps
Descending Pyramids:
Decrease the weight and increase the reps with each set.
•Set 1 – heavy weight: 4-6 reps
•Set 2 – medium weight: 8-10 reps
•Set 3 – light/medium weight: 10-12 reps
•Set 4 – light weight 12-16 reps

Triangle Pyramids:
With this technique you do both ascending and descending pyramids.
•Set 1 – light weight: 12-16 reps
•Set 2 – light/medium weight: 10-12 reps
•Set 3 – medium: 8-10 reps
•Set 4 – heavy 4-6 reps
•Set 5 – medium weight: 8-10 reps
•Set 6 – light/medium weight: 10-12 reps
•Set 7 – light weight: 12-16 reps

Increases the stress placed on the working muscle as you can work it at different angles
Benefits = use more muscle fibres and increase the blood flow to the muscle
Negatives = cannot be used in every training session because of the intensity of training and it can carry a high risk of injury and over training if you if you don't know how to do it properly
Working opposite muscle groups or areas has advantage of blood being kept in the same area which increases blood flow .. carrying more nutrients and oxygen to the working muscle
More time efficient then other training methods as rest periods are built into the training (because working opposite muscle groups)
Key limitation = doesn't increase the overload in the same way as compound set does .. but increases demand on the cardiovascular system .. which helps anaerobic threshold.. lactate tolerance and muscular endurance
During the training week ... speed training should take place after a rest period or low intensity training to reduce the risk of injury or overtraining
Within a training session .. speed training should take place after the warm up and any other training within the session should be low intensity
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