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America Industrializes

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Ms. Rader

on 2 September 2016

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Transcript of America Industrializes

Factors Promoting Industrialization
Free Enterprise System
- Laissez-Faire Policy (limited gov't)
- Economic Freedom
Rise of Corporation
Vast natural resources (oil, iron, etc)
Massive population growth
Creation of National Market
- New methods of selling
Building Railroads
- Added lines connecting country
- Transcontinental RR connected E to W
Technological Innovations
Oil drilling & refining
Telephone & telegraph
Bessemer Process - used to produce more steel
Sewing Machine
Thomas Edison & light bulb
Expansion in use of electricity
Captains of Industry
Andrew Carnegie
Made fortune in steel industry
Gospel of Wealth - "God made me rich," survival of the fittest, blame the poor
Philanthropy - gave millions to fund libraries & universities
Conditions of Labor
Daily Life
Long Hours, Low Wages
No job security
Child Labor
Dangerous, repetitive tasks
America Industrializes
Industrialization & the Gilded Age
John D. Rockefeller
Made fortune refining oil
Monopoly on oil industry -
Standard Oil Co.
Philanthropy - gave millions for science & education
Called "Captains of Industry" b/c they forged modern economy
Called "robber barons" b/c they ruthlessly destroyed competition by any means necessary
Credit Mobilier Scandal
Mark Twain coined the term "Gilded Age" in an effort to illustrate the outwardly showy, but inwardly corrupt nature of American society during the industrialization of the late 1800s.

Attempts to Control Big Business
Interstate Commerce Act (1887): fed. gov't began regulating industry; prohibited unfair practices by RR.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890): limit unfair business practices
Labor Organizes
Workers formed unions to act as a group (could strike) for better conditions
- Knights of Labor: skilled & unskilled workers
- AFL: separate unions of skilled workers
Immigrants & Nativists
New Immigrants
Poor, unskilled, spoke no English
S & E Europeans
Lived in ethnic ghettos (tenements)
Resented immigrants - attempted to "Americanize"
Wanted to restrict immigration - Chinese Exclusion Act
Most immigrants settled in E. cities
Cities run by Political Machines headed by Political Bosses
- helped immigrants find jobs/$ in exchange for votes
- Used control to rob cities (Tammany Hall)
Union Tactics & Government Response
Strikes: 24,000 strikes in this time period. Both unions & employers sometimes used violence in strikes
- Haymarket Riot: union rally for 8-hr work day; anarchists threw bomb into crowd; gunfight.
- Homestead Strike: fight over cut wages; shootout b/w union workers & police force.
Government Response to Labor Unions: favored big business b/c of the influence of $$, critical of labor unions.
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