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Metabolism, Nutrition, and Body Temperature
Transcript of Metabolism, Nutrition, and Body Temperature
nerve muscle conduction
Minerals needed in extremely small amounts are referred to as trace elements. Vitamins are complex organic substances needed in very small quantities. They are also part of enzymes or other substances essential for metabolism. Lack of vitamins can lead to a variety of nutritional diseases.
There are two types of soluble vitamins, and that is the water-soluble and fat-soluble.
the water-soluble vitamins consist of Vitamin B and C
the fat-soluble vitamins consist of Vitamin A, D, E, and K (These vitamins are stored in fatty tissue. If too much of these vitamins are consumed, it can lead to toxicity.) Metabolism, Nutriti n, and Body Temperature Free radicals are highly reactive and unstable molecules produced from oxygen in the normal course of metabolism (and also from UV radiation, air pollution, and tobacco smoke). Free radicals usually contribute to aging and disease. Antioxidants react with free radicals to stabilize them and minimize their harmful effects on cells.Vitamins C and E and betacarotene (an orange pigment found in plants that is converted to vitamin A, are antioxidants. Some plants like soybeans and tomatoes are also antioxidants. Nutritional Guidelines Percentage Consumed
Carbohydrates: 55%- 60%
Fat: 30% or less
Protein: 15%- 20% If someone wants to lose weight, the amount of foods should be reduced but the percentage of carbohydrates, fat, and proteins should still remain constant. Fats US Dietary Guidelines Fruit Group- 4 servings (2 cups)
Vegetable Group- 5 servings (2.5 cups)
Grain Group- 6 servings (6 ounces)
Protein Group- 5.5 servings (5.5 ounces)
Dairy Group- 3 servings (3 cups)
Oils and Sweets- 24g or 6 teaspoons Proteins Proteins-
there are 20 amino acids
needed for everyday basis because it contain essential amino acids
meat supplies all amino acids, while vegetables lacks one or more amino acids
vegetarians need to learn to combine foods to such as legumes (e.g beans and peas ) to obtain all the essential amino acids each day Nutritional Disorders Food Allergies
Some people may develop allergic (hypersensitive) symptoms if they eat certain foods. Common food allergies include wheat, nuts, milk, shellfish, and eggs, but any food can cause an allergic reaction in someone’s body. People may also be allergic to food additives, such as flavorings, colorings, or preservatives. Signs of an allergic reaction may involve the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract. Food allergies may cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock in extremely sensitive individuals. Temperature Regulation and Fevers Hypothalamus- most important center for heat regulation Weight Disorders Overweight and Obesity
Being overweight means you have an excess amount of body weight as compared to set standards.
Being obese means you have an excess amount of body fat.
Men with more than 25 percent body fat and women with more than 30 percent body fat are considered obese.
The causes of obesity may include social, economic, genetic, psychological, and metabolic factors. Obesity shortens the life span and is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, some cancers, and other diseases. The risk of type 2 diabetes has increased greatly among children. At least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise every day is recommended for health and weight control. Metabolism and Cellular Respiration Metabolism-
Nutrients absorbed from digestive tract used for body's cellular activities.
Catabolism is the breakdown of complex compounds into simpler compounds. (Includes digestion and release of energy from molecules within cell)
Anabolism is the building of simple compounds into substances needed for cellular activities and for growth and repair of tissues. Carbohydrates There are both simple and complex carbohydrates. The diet should have more complex carbohydrates than simple carbohydrates. Heat Protection and Production Heat Loss Responses to Heat Chapter 20 Simple sugars/carbohydrates are monosaccharides and disaccharides.
monosaccharides- glucose and fructose (fruit sugar)
disaccharides- sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar)
Simple sugars are a source of fast energy because they are metabolized rapidly. The bad thing about simple sugars and why only a small amount of them should be consumed for our diet is because they boost pancreatic insulin output. This causes blood glucose levels to rise and fall rapidly. The average steady glucose level range is from 85-125 mg/dL for the whole day. Complex sugars/carbohydrates are polysaccharides. They could be broken up into starches and fibers.
Fiber adds bulk to the stool and helps eliminate toxins and wastes in the body.
Fiber also slows the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, therefore helping maintain and regulate body glucose levels.
In addition, fiber also helps weight control by providing a sense of fullness and limiting calorie intake.
The fiber helps lower cholesterol and prevents diabetes, colon cancer, hemorrhoids, appendicitis, and diverticulitis.
Fibers are also rich in vitamins and minerals Glycemic effect is a measure of how rapidly a particular food raises the blood glucose level and stimulates the release of insulin.
effect is low when whole grains, fruit, and dairy products are consumed
effect is high when sweets and refined "white" grains are consumed
The effect not only depends on what type of food is consumed but also by when it is eaten and how it is combined with other foods Fats are subdivided into unsaturated and saturated fats. They are divided because of their different chemical structure. The fatty acids in saturated fats have more hydrogen atoms in their molecules and fewer double bonds between carbons. Saturated fats come from animal sources that are solid at room temperature, like butter and lard. The "tropical oils" which are coconut and palm oils are also a part of the saturated fats group. Saturated fats should take up less than a third of the fat in the diet so that means 10% of the whole diet. If too much saturated fats are consumed, heart disease, cardiovascular problems, and cancer could occur. Unsaturated fats have fewer hydrogen atoms and more double bonds between carbons than saturated fats. Unsaturated fats come from plants. They are liquid at room temperature and are usually called the oils (corn, peanut, olive, and canola oils). Unsaturated fats make up the other two thirds of fats in the diet or 20% of the whole diet. Many commercial products contain fats that are artificially saturated to prevent rancidity (stench) and provide a more solid consistency. In the nutritional facts, they are labeled as hydrogenated. Inside them are trans fatty acids, and that is believed to be as harmful as saturated fats. Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances in the diet that protect against harmful free radicals. Cellular Respiration of Glucose Anaerobic (glycolysis) located in cytoplasm
end products are pyruvic acid
the energy yield/glucose is 2 ATP Aerobic located in mitochondria
end products are carbon dioxide and water
the energy yield/glucose is 30 ATP Nonessential Amino Acids Alanine Arginine Asparagine Cysteine Glutamic Acid Aspartic Acid Glycine Proline Serine Glutamine Tyrosine Essential Amino Acids Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized by the body.
Essential amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body but must be taken for the diet. Malnutrition
Malnutrition is the lack of proper nutrition. When a vital nutrient is missing from the diet, malnutrition occurs. Malnutrition can also occur from eating too much of the wrong food. Poverty, old age, chronic illness, anorexia, poor dental health, and drug or alcohol addiction are all factors that contribute to malnutrition. In poor and underdeveloped countries, many children suffer from protein and energy malnutrition (PEM). Marasmus, deriving from the Greek word meaning “dying away”, is a term used for malnutrition in infancy. Kwashiorkor usually affects older children when they are weaned (no longer drinking his/her mother’s milk) because another child is born. This causes a low protein level in the blood plasma and interferes with fluid returns to the capillaries, this results in edema. Excess fluid accumulates in the abdomen as ascites, and this causes the stomach to bulge. Nutritional Disorders- disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, over nutrition, or under nutrition.
-Weight control is an example of a nutritional disorder and has become a public issue. Underweight-
People who are underweight have as much difficulty gaining weight as obese people have losing it. A BMI of less than 18.5 is defined as underweight. In order to gain weight, people have to increase their intake of calories, but they should also exercise to add muscle tissue, not just fat. Being Underweight may result from rapid growth, eating disorders, allergies, illness, or psychological factors. It is associated with low reserves of energy, reproductive disturbances, and nutritional deficiencies. Body mass index (BMI) is a measurement used to evaluate body size. It is based on the ratio of height to weight. You can calculate BMI by dividing your weight in kilograms by your height in meters squared. An alternate method is to divide your weight in pounds by the square of your height in inches and multiply by 703. A healthy range for this measurement is 19 to 24. Overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25 to 30. Obese people have a BMI greater than 30. BMI does not take into account the relative amount of muscle and fat in the body. For example, a bodybuilder might be healthy with a higher than typical BMI because muscle has a higher density than fat. http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/
http://www.mcw.edu/ yramid Food Grains Fruits Vegetables Meats, Poultry, and Proteins Fats, Oils, and Sweets Oils and Sweets Protein Fruits
Vegetables Grains Vitamin and mineral supplements-
vitamins and minerals can be gained if a person maintains a healthy diet
many commercial foods, include milk, cereal, and bread are already fortified with minerals and vitamins
people such as children, elderly people, pregnancy and lactating women, and teenagers, who often do not get enough of the proper foods, would profit from additional minerals and vitamins
Megavitamin dosages may cause unpleasant reactions and in some cases are hazardous especially of Vitamins A and D (which can cause serious toxic effects) Alcohol-
alcohol interferes with metabolism and contributes to variety of disorders
the body can metabolize about one-half ounce of pure alcohol per hour and it’s metabolized through the stomach and small intestine and is detoxified by the liver
alcohol is not considered a nutrient because it does not yield useful end products
although alcohol consumption is compatible with good health and helps the cardiovascular system, alcohol should only be consumed in moderation
alcohol is rapidly absorbed through the stomach and small intestine and is detoxified by the liver
if there is excess alcohol, this can lead to cirrhosis. Other effects of alcoholism includes obesity, malnutrition, cancer, ulcers, and fetal alcohol syndrome. (Pregnant woman should not drink alcohol when bearing a child) Heat Protection-
Heat is a byproduct of the cellular oxidations which it generates energy. The amount of heat produce by a given organ varies with the kind of tissues activity. Muscles may produce at least as 25% of just body heat. When muscles contract heat productions is multiplied. Liver and other abdominal organs produce 50% of body heat. On the other hand the brain only takes 15%. Factors of Affecting Heat Production-
Heat is produced by many factors such as exercise, hormone production, food take in and age. Hormones such as thyroxine from the thyroid gland and epinephrine (adrenaline) help produce heat. While the adrenal medulla increases heat production. Heat Loss-
15-20 % of heat loss occurs in the respiratory system and the urine feces. More than 80% of heat loss occurs in the skin in which blood vessels in the dermis can bring considerable quantities to the blood near the surface. This can make the heat dissipate faster to the outside. Conduction is heat that can be transferred directly to surrounding air. Radiation is heat waves or rays. Convection is layer of heated air next to the body that is constantly being carried away to replace with cooler air. Evaporation is the process of liquids transforming to a vapor state. Prevention of Heat Loss-
It all consist of the volume of tissues compared to the amount of skin surface, such as the skin covering your fingers and toes. It occurs when the surrounding air temperature is lower than the body one. Excessive heat loss is prevented by both natural and artificial means. Clothing checks heat loss by trapping insulating air in both material and its layers. The fatty tissue prevents the deeper tissues from losing to much heat this later is slightly thicker in females than males. Responses to Excessive Heat-
The body’s heat regulating device are efficient but there is a limit to what they can accomplish.
Heat cramps is localized muscle cramping of extremities and occasionally of the abdomen.
Heat exhaustion is heat retention and more fluid loss.
Heat stroke is when body temperature is rise to 41 degree Celsius.
It’s important to to lower heatstroke victim’s body temperature immediately by removing the individuals’s clothing, or placing them in a cool environment. Responses to Excessive Cold-
Hypothermia is main effects of an excessively low body temperature.
When a person is suffering from hypothermia, the person must be warmed gradually by heat from an outside source.
Frostbite can cause permanent local tissue damage and even death to tissues to areas like faces, ears, and extremities. Heat Regulation-
is based on temperature of the blood circulating through the brain and the temperature receptors in the skin.
if the two factors indicate too much heat, impulses are sent from the hypothalamus to the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system.
the skin's blood vessels constrict to reduce heat loss.
other impulses are sent to the muscles to cause shivering.
if there is danger of overheating, the hypothalamus stimulates the sweat glands to increase their activity.
the hypothalamus may also induce muscle relaxation to minimize heat production.
muscles are important in temperature regulation. very young and very old people are limited in their ability to regulate body temperature when exposed to environmental extremes
a newborn's heat loss mechanisms are not fully developed
the elderly do not lose as much heat as do younger people
the normal temperature range may extend from 97 degrees F to 100 degrees F
temperature varies with the time of day
the lowest temperature is in the morning because the muscles have been relaxed Cellular Respiration-
Energy released from nutrients in series of reactions.
There were studies on cellular respiration with glucose (simple sugar that is body's main energy source) as the starting compound.
Is split into anaerobic and aerobic phases. Anaerobic Phase is the phase in cellular respiration that does not require oxygen. The first few phases in breaking down glucose is called glycolysis. This occurs in the cell's cytoplasm and yields 2 ATP for every glucose molecule. The anaerobic phase does not complete the breakdown of glucose but it forms pyruvic acid. This organic acid is then metabolized in the next phase of cellular respiration. In muscle cells pyruvic acid turns into lactic acid which accumulates when there is an oxygen debt. Lactic acid induces muscle fatigue. Breathing helps convert lactic acid to pyruvic acid and restores oxygen. During recovery phase, reserves are replenished in the muscles. These compounds are myoglobin which stores oxygen, glycogen which breaks down to glucose, and creatine phosphate which stores energy. Aerobic Phase is the phase that requires oxygen. Here pyruvic acid from the previous phase is broken down. This phase occurs in the cell's mitochondria and yields 30 ATP. Cells form carbon dioxide in this phase which is transported to the lungs for elimination. Water is also formed with oxygen and hydrogen removed from nutrient molecules. Because of the oxygen and the chemical steps, cellular respiration is considered and oxidation of nutrients. Metabolic oxidation occurs in small steps, and much of the energy released is stored as ATP for later use by the cells; some of the energy is released as heat, which is used to maintain body temperature. glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water+ ATP Metabolic Rate-
rate at which energy is released from nutrients in cells
is affected by size, body fat, sex, age, activity, hormones ( especially from thyroid, thyroxine)
basal metabolism- amount of energy to maintain life functions while at rest
unit to measure energy is kilocalorie (kcal)
it is also the amount of heat needed to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree C. Use of Nutrients for Energy-
glucose- main source of energy
carbohydrates are converted to glucose on metabolism
reserves of glucose are stored in liver and muscle cells as glycogen
when glucose is needed, glycogen is broken down to yield glucose
glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids are also used in the body for energy
fat yields twice as much energy as protein and carbohydrates
excess fat is stored in adipose tissue
before oxidized, nitrogen should be removed in the process of deamination
deamination occurs in the liver, where nitrogen groups are formed into urea by combination with carbon dioxide (and the blood transports the urea to kidney for removal)
there are no specialized storage forms of proteins, as they are for carbohydrates (glycogen) and fats (adipose tissue)
if the body needs protein, it must be obtained from body's substances such as muscle tissue or plasma proteins
a drain on the reserves when there is a need or extreme need is very dangerous
fats and carbohydrates are called protein sparing because their energy is used up before protein Anabolism-
nutrient molecules are built into body materials by anabolic steps, which are catalyzed by enymes
11 of 20 amino acids are synthesized internally by metabolic reaction
those 11 amino acids are called nonessential because they cannot be taken in as food
the other 9 amino acids are not made metabolically
these 9 are the essential amino acids and must be taken in for the diet
nonessential amino acids can become essential in conditions during extreme physical stress or in hereditary metabolic diseases Metabolic Oxidation and Rate, Nutrients for Energy, and Anabolism by
Tu Van Pham
Neil Damodaran Fever:
A fever is a condition in which the body temperature is higher than normal. One with a fever is called febrile.
Can be caused by malignancies, brain injuries, toxic reactions, reactions to vaccines, or diseases involving the central nervous system, and are brought about to reset the hypothalamus.
Fevers are preceded by chills, generating heat that is stored, elevating body temperature.
Fevers should never be starved, as metabolism increases during the duration of one. This causes the body to require more nutrients and minerals in order to continue to function. High calorie diets with protein help the fever die down.
When a fever ends, sometimes the entire body's temperature falls rapidly, called a crisis. This runs parallel to lots of perspiration, relaxation in muscles, and dilation of blood vessels. A gradual drop in the body's temperature is called a lysis.
Drugs that reduce a fever is described as antipyretic.
Fevers are produced by many substances, mainly things called pyrogens.
Fevers are beneficial as it increases phagocytosis, effectively removing any pathogenic cells from the body. There are also two essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. They are taken in as food and are a part of a healthful, balanced diet. The nutritional guidelines differ between individuals, but the percentages are somewhat the same. There are 6 groups in the pyramid. One fat gram produces 9 kcal (kilocalories).
One protein gram produces 4 kcal.
One carbohydrate gram produces 4 kcal. When growing older, managing a diet is harder. Metabolism usually slows and less food is required to meet energy needs, nutritional deficiencies may develop. Medications the elder take can also interfere with appetite and absorption or use of specific nutrients. Elders should eat more nutrient dense foods (more nutrients but less calories) and exercise. Marasmus Kwashiorkor www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0O87gWv-Xk