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THE BIRTH OF A NATION
Transcript of THE BIRTH OF A NATION
INCREDULOUS BATTLE AT MANILA
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM
THE BIRTH OF A NATION
June 5, 1898 – Aguinaldo issued a decree setting aside June 12 as the day for proclamation of Philippine Independence.
June 12, 1898 – proclamation of the independence of the Philippines at Cavite el Viejo (Kawit) at four to five in the afternoon.
Act of Declaration of Independence – prepared by Ambrosio Riamzares Bautista, signed by 98 people, however was promulgated on August 1.
FIRST PHILIPPINE FLAG
Philippine National Flag – made in HongKong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, and Delfina Herboza.
Julian Felipe – composer from Cavite, who showed the draft of Composition entitled Marcha Filipina Magdalo which was later changed to Marcha Nacional Filipana. The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma
PHILIPPINE FLAG MEANING AND SYMBOLS
colour of the Philippine flag is the symbol for peace, truth, and justice. The
is the symbol for patriotism and valour. The
is the symbol for equality and fraternity. It is also symbolize the Katipunan, the secret Filipino society who stands against the Spanish rule.
The three golden stars
in the corners of the triangle, represent the three major group of island in the Philippines, namely the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.
The golden sun
center of the triangle
is the symbol for unity, freedom, people's democracy, and sovereignty. The sun has eight rays around it.
represents one of the first eight provinces that started the 1896 Philippine revolution against Spanish colony. These provinces are Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna and Batangas.
PEACE PROTOCOL, Aug. 12, 1898, 4:23 p.m., Washington, D.C. [August 13, 4:23 a.m. in Manila] : Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France and representing Spain [SEATED, left] and William R. Day, U.S. Secretary of State [SEATED, near center], sign the protocol suspending hostilities and defining the terms on which peace negotiations were to be carried on between the United States and Spain. The protocol was signed in the presence of Pres. William R. Mckinley [STANDING, 4th from right].
The mock battle of Manila was staged on August 13. At 7:30 a.m., with American and Spanish commanders unaware that a peace protocol had been signed between their governments a few hours earlier, the battle for Manila commenced. Admiral Dewey had cut the only cable that linked Manila to the outside world on May 2nd; news of the war's end reached neither General Jaudenes or Admiral Dewey until August 16th.
battle at Manila Bay
George Dewey, then a Commodore United States Navy’s Asiatic Squadron was waiting in Hong Kong when He received a cable from the then secretary of Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, stating that the war had begun between the US and Spain. Dewey sailed from Hong Kong on board his flagship Olympia with six other heavily armed ships. He brought with him a report on the location of the Spanish ships in Corregidor and Manila at dawn of May 1, 1898. Dewey entered Manila Bay almost undetected. When he saw the Spanish ships, which were under the command of General Patricio Montoya, he ordered his men to fire.
The battle began at 5:41 in the morning and by 12:30 of the same day, the Spaniards were raising the white flag in surrender. Although The Spanish ships outnumbered those of the Americans; the weapons of the Americans were far more superior to those of the Spaniards. The battle proved to be too costly for the Spaniards, who lost 167 men and had 214 others wounded. As for the Americans, no ships were destroyed, and no soldier was killed or injured. The Battle of Manila Bay is considered one of the easiest encounters ever won in world history.
Generals Wesley Merritt and Felix Greene looking at Spanish positions, August 1898
13th Minnesota Volunteers fighting in the woods near Manila
Fort San Antonio de Abad: Photo shows damage from Admiral Dewey's naval guns
MEMOIRS OF THE WAR
US Third Artillery acting as infantry. In backqround is the strongest Spanish blockhouse outside the walled district of Intramuros, Manila.
The squad of 2nd Oregon Volunteers detailed to escort and raise the American flag over Manila.
Squad of Spanish prisoners, surrendered to Brig. Gen. Francis V. Greene on Aug. 13, 1898
A committee headed by Felipe Calderon and aided by Cayetano Arellano, the constitution was drafted, for the first time by representatives of the Filipino people and it is the first republican constitution in Asia. The constitution was inspired by the constitutions of Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Brazil, Belgium and France. After some minor revisions (mainly due to the objections of Apolinario Mabini), the final draft of the constitution was presented to Aguinaldo. This paved the way to launching the first Philippine Republic. It established a democratic, republication government with three branches - the Executive, Legislative and the Judicial branches. It called for the separation of church and state. The executive powers were to be exercise by the president of the republic with the help of his cabinet. Judicial powers were given to the Supreme Court and other lower courts to be created by law. The Chief justice of the Supreme Court was to be elected by the legislature with the concurrence of the President and his Cabinet.
Aguinaldo was proclaimed the president of the Philippine Republic in Malolos.
Aguinaldo established the Dictatorial Government in May 1898 to show the capacity of Filipinos for self-government, and a month later, the Revolutionary Government.
Diff. departments were created for the division of duties of the new government.
In September, the Congress was convoked at Malolos and a constitution prepared to guide the government in its prgress toward republicanism.
December 1898 – Treaty of Paris, the United States decided to take over the Philippines
Aguinaldo decide to establish a Filipino government in the wake of his military victories.
He had a draft of a plan for the establishment of a revolutionary government, prepared by Mariano Ponce.
Consul Wildman – advised Aguinaldo to establish a dictatorial government in which could lead to a republican government similar to that of the united States.
Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista – Aguinaldo’s 1st adviser, who also told him to form a dictatorial government.
May 24 1898 – Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing the Dictatorial Government which nullified the orders issued under the authority of the Biak-na-Bato Republic.
*Revolutionary Congress at Barasoain, Malolos
September 4 - 50 delegates
September 10 - 60 delegates
Banda Pasig - played the National Anthem
Felipe Buencamino - wrote Aguinaldo's speech
Officers:President: Pedro A. PaternoVice President: Benito Legarda1st Secretary: Gregorio Araneta2nd Secretary: Pablo Ocampo
1. In September 29, 1898, ratified the declaration of Philippine independence held at Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898
2. Passage of a law that allowed the Philippines to borrow P 20 million from banks for government expenses
3. Establishment of the Universidad Literatura de Filipinas and other schools
4. Drafting of the Philippine Constitution
5. Declaring war against the United States on June 12, 1899
The most important achievements of the Malolos Congress:
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM
SPANISH / ENGLISH VERSION
Marcela Mariño Agoncillo
-Brain of Revolution
The original lyrics was written in Spanish, then to English (when the Flag Law was abolished during the American period) then later, was translated to Tagalog, which underwent another change of title to “Lupang Hinirang”, the Philippine National Anthem.
January 21 1899 - promulgated the constitution.
Earlier on January 2 , he formulated his Cabinet .
Apolinario Mabini - President of the Cabinet and Sec. of foreign Affairs
Teodoro Sandico - Secretary of Interior
Baldomero Aguinaldo - Secretary of War
Mariano Trias - Secretary of Finance
Gracio Gonzaga - Secretary Of Welfare , including Public Instruction , Public Works , Communications , Agriculture , Industry and Commerence .
El Heraldo de la Revolucion
– Official Organ of the Republic.
System of free and compulsory elementary education was provided by Malolos Constitution
Universidad Literaria de Filipinas
– was established with Jouaqin Gonzales as first President.
Military Academy of Malolos – director was Major Manuel Sityar
January 17 1899
– Wenceslao Gonzales proclaimed a philippine republic in Butuan. Four flags was hoisted that day. The Tricolor flag of Phil Revolution , white flag of surrender, national flag of Spain and Pontifical flag.
– first republic in Asia