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Day 1 Inspections

different inspection techniques

MIAT106 Inspections

on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of Day 1 Inspections

Part is cleaned
Penetrant is applied
Allow time to soak
Clean off excessive dye
May or may not apply developer depending on instructions
Inspect under a UV light to increase test sensitivity.

Fluorescent Dye Penetrant

Fluorescent Dye Penetrate
Uses dye and a UV light to check for cracks
Must have good eyesight
Procedure is critical for proper results
Must follow manufacturer’s instructions because dyes and developers are made of different bases

Visual Inspection

Part is cleaned
Penetrant is applied
Allow time to soak into cracks
Excess dye is cleaned off
Part is lightly covered with a dry powder
Allow for dwell time
Lightly blow powder off
Inspect for cracks
Can be plain dye or fluorescent

Visual Inspection-Dye Penetrant Using Dry Powder

Three Part Non-Aqueous

Dye Penetrant
Uses dye and a developer to check for cracks
Must have good eyesight
Procedure is critical for proper results
Must follow manufacturer’s instructions because dyes and developers are made of different bases

Visual Inspection

There are Two types of Dye Penetrant inspections:
Dye Penetrant
Uses visual inspection with Dye and white light
Fluorescent Dye Penetrant
Uses visual inspection with Dye and UV light
NOTE: This testing should not be used on composite structures!

Visual Inspection-Dye Penetrant

Must be very familiar with how the equipment works
Must know what you are looking at
The internal design of the part
The order of internal sub-parts
What a defect looks like
How big the area of defect is when viewed through the Borescope

Borescope, Visual Inspection

Visual Inspection of the leading edge of a Wind Turbine

Most basic and common inspection method.
Magnifying glass, mirror, and flash light
Requires Dedication to paying attention
Must use good lighting
Must have good eyesight
If required, mirror or magnifying glass must not be scratched

Visual Inspection

Used on parts that are in service
Also determines:
Continued serviceability
Level of safety
Length of time until replacement
Length of time until overhaul
Leak Detection
Location Determination
Dimensional Measurements

NDT Inspections

Cracks, Usually from Over Stressing or High Levels of Vibration

Galvanic Corrosion

Pending Failure Due To Wear

Pitted from Corrosion

Stripped Head

Cross Threaded

Cracked or Fractured Bolts
Most Likely From Over-torquing

Thread Yielding


Visible, Dry Powder Method

Throat and Toe Cracks in
Partially Ground Weld

Clean Parts thoroughly. Then use cleaner / remover to remove any oil residue. Dry part completely

Visual Inspection

Borescope Types:
Rigid Tube Movie
Uses glass fibers
Uses CCD (charge-coupled device) technology making the head very small
Camera Scope
Takes still pictures for documentation
Video Scope
Takes video for documentation
Some Borescopes can measure dimensions of damage

Borescope, Visual Inspection

An optical instrument consisting of a rigid or flexible tube with a viewing device on one end, and an optical pick-up on the other
Linked together by a relay optical system
Used for internal inspection of hard-to-get-at mechanical parts, such as engines, gear boxes, turbines, or other components.

Visual Inspection

Visual inspection is any inspection that relies on the human eye in the end to determine if there is a discrepancy
Non-Visual inspection is an inspection that in the end uses other technology other than the eye to determine discrepancies.


Dimensional Inspection
Dimensional inspections will require precision tools to inspect for wear and dimensional tolerance
Dial Indicators
Thickness Gauges
Scales / rule
Depth Gauges


There are many different methods of inspections, however, it is imperative that the method called out by the manufacturer is strictly adhered to.
If the manufacture’s inspection method is followed and the part fails you are covered
If you inspect the part by any other means and it fails, you are considered at fault.
Inspections can be classified using 6 classifications:

Inspection Methods

Cracking from vibration or Over Stressing

Composites for Delamination, Cracking, Fatigue, and or Impact Damage

Metal For Corrosion, Oxidation, Pitting, and Cracks

Failure Due To Over-torquing

There are many different things that can go wrong with equipment or hardware.
The following pictures are just a few of the types of things you will be inspecting for.


Visible penetrant is usually red because red stands out and provides a high level of contrast against a light developer background
Fluorescent penetrant is green because the eye is most sensitive to the color green due to the number and arrangement of the cones (the color receptors) in the eye.

Why is Visible Penetrant Red and Fluorescent Penetrant Green?

Defect indications become less distinguishable as the background “noise” increases.

Components with rough surfaces, such as sand castings, that trap and hold penetrant.
Porous ceramics
Wood and other fibrous materials.
Plastic parts that absorb or react with the penetrant materials.
Components with coatings that prevent penetrants from entering defects.

What Can Not be Inspected Via Fluorescent Dye Penetrant

Visible, Dry Powder Method

Toe Crack in SMAW Weld


Visible, Dry Powder Method

Lack of Fusion in SMAW Weld

Apply the dye liberally in the area to be inspected and allow adequate time to soak into any cracks per manufacture’s instructions

Destructive Testing
Requires damaging the part so it is no longer useable
Employed mainly during designing or after a part failed to determine why it failed
Hardness Testing
Impact testing
Dynamic testing (Operating beyond limits)
Fatigue testing (Compression, bending, shear, torsion)


Non-Dimensional inspections will use a variety of inspection techniques that are mainly for finding discrepancies with a piece of equipment or hardware
Non-Dimensional inspections may become Dimensional if a discrepancy is discovered



Galvanic Corrosion
Dissimilar metals

Under-torqued Bolt

A systematic approach to ensure a piece of equipment meets a predetermined level of safety and or functionality
Inspection is one of the most critical operations you as a technician will do
You may have the final responsibility in determining the serviceability of the equipment
Maintained operation - revenue


Introduction to Inspections
Day 1

Apply developer and allow time for the dye to wick out (capillary action) of any cracks. This is called Dwell time

Liquid Penetrant
Eddy Current

Most Common NDT Methods

Inspection For
In-Service Damage

Heat Damage


Inspection of Raw Products

Common Applications of NDT:

Non Destructive Testing (NDT)

i.e. Inspect or measure without doing harm.

The use of noninvasive techniques to determine the integrity of a material, component or structure
quantitatively measure some characteristic of an object.

Loose or Working Hardware


Many methods of application are possible such as:
Dipping/ Immersing

Clean excessive dye off with a rag wetted with cleaner / remover. If you spray cleaner directly onto the part, it may wash the dye from any cracks.

Penetrant Application

Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows inspection of large tanks and vessels, railroad tank cars, sewer lines.

Other Visual Inspection Equipment

Robotic crawlers permit observation in hazardous or tight areas, such as air ducts, reactors, pipelines.

Inspection Following
Secondary Processing

Heat treating

Bolt Stretch

a Dry Powder
b Wet, Water Soluble
c Wet, Water Suspendable
d Wet, Non-Aqueous

Developer Form

A Water Washable
B Postemulsifiable
- Lipophilic
C Postemulsifiable
- Hydrophilic
D Solvent Removable

Method (how it is removed)

I Fluorescent
II Visible

Penetrant Type (how it is seen)

Choices of Testing Materials

Camera Scope

Rigid Borescope

Electronic CCD

Video Scope

Flexible Borescope


Tap Testing

Magnetic Measurements

Acoustic Microscopy

Flux Leakage

Laser Interferometry


Acoustic Emission




Eddy Current

Magnetic Particle

Liquid Penetrant


Methods of NDT

Inspections Day 1
Full transcript